Top Four Stories of 2017

McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP
Contact

After reflecting upon the events of the past twelve months, Patent Docs presents its 11th annual list of top patent stories.  For 2017, we identified nineteen stories that were covered on Patent Docs last year that we believe had (or are likely to have) a significant impact on patent practitioners and applicants.  In previous posts, we counted down stories #19 to #15, stories #14 to #10, and stories #9 to #5, and today we count down the top four stories of 2017.  As with our other lists (2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007), links to our coverage of these stories (as well as a few links to articles on related topics) have been provided in case you missed the articles the first time around or wish to go back and have another look.  As always, we love to hear from Patent Docs readers, so if you think we left something off the list or disagree with anything we included, please let us know.  In addition, we will be offering a live webinar on the "Top Patent Law Stories of 2017" on January 17, 2018 from 10:00 am to 11:15 am (CT).  Details regarding the webinar, which will focus on a handful of the most important stories on this year's list, can be found here.


4.  Supreme Court: § 286 Trumps Laches Defense

In March, the Supreme Court vacated the Federal Circuit's affirmance of a District Court decision that a patent infringement suit filed by SCA Hygiene Products Aktiebolag against First Quality Baby Products, LLC was barred by laches (even though SCA brought suit about 7 years after it first notified First Quality regarding its allegations of infringement).  The Supreme Court's decision in SCA Hygiene Products Aktiebolag v. First Quality Baby Products, LLC was based, in part, on the Court's earlier decision in Petrella v. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc., where the Court barred laches as a defense in copyright infringement actions based on a three-year statute of limitations enacted by Congress.  The Federal Circuit, sitting en banc, based its affirmance of the District Court on the reasoning that although Congress had enacted a six-year time limitation on money damages in 35 U.S.C. § 286, the provisions of 35 U.S.C. § 282 made unenforceability, which includes the equitable doctrine of laches, available as a defense.  However, as in Petrella, the Supreme Court determined that there was no basis for the Federal Circuit's decision that laches could contradict the statute of limitations provisions of § 286.  The Court also opined that the doctrine of laches was developed for situations where Congress had not specified a fixed time for bringing suit, and thus was a "gap-filling" doctrine to cure in equity what the law did not expressly provide.  However, when, as here, Congress had provided an express statute of limitations "there is no gap to fill" and thus no purpose for laches.

For information regarding this and other related topics, please see:

• "SCA Hygiene Products Aktiebolag v. First Quality Baby Products, LLC (2017)," March 21, 2017


3.  Use of Tribal Sovereign Immunity as Shield to PTAB Review

In September, Allergan creatively invoked the protection of sovereign immunity under the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution by assigning six Orange Book-listed patents protecting Allergan's RESTASIS® (Cyclosporine Ophthalmic Emulsion 0.05%), which is used to treat chronic dry eye, to the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe (SRMT).  The patents had been challenged in inter partes review (IPR) proceedings.  Allergan paid SRMT $13.75 million upon transferring these patents, which SRMT licensed to Allergan for $15 million per year until the patents expire in 2024.  Shortly after the transfer, SRMT filed a motion before the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) to have six IPRs involving the patents dismissed based on SRMT's sovereign immunity upon Allergan's assignment of the patents.  In October, Federal Circuit Judge William Bryson, sitting by designation on the bench of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas, granted a motion made by Allergan to join SRMT to ANDA litigation as a necessary party, and then found the claims of the Orange Book-listed patents asserted in ANDA litigation to be invalid.  Judge Bryson's decision rendered moot the inter partes review proceedings before the PTAB (insofar as the claims at issue before the District Court and the Board were the same).  Back at the PTAB, the Board was sufficiently vexed over the question of whether SRMT was entitled to have the Board dismiss, on grounds of sovereign immunity, IPRs on patents SRMT licensed from Allergan to solicit amicus curiae briefs on the issue from "interested parties."  However, in December, an expanded panel of the Board issued an order dismissing a sovereign immunity challenge by the State of Minnesota in Ericsson Inc. v. Regents of the University of Minnesota.  The coincidence of these two decisions was curious, particularly because while the scope of sovereign immunity enjoyed by the various recognized Tribes of Native Americans is both uncertain and subject to Congressional abrogation, a State's sovereignty is acknowledged and protected by the Eleventh Amendment.  The Board's decision in Ericsson Inc. provides some insight into not only how the Board may rule on SRMT's motion, but also on how the Board (and the Patent Office) perceives its role and authority to make such decisions, and almost certainly means that tribal sovereign immunity will be making a return trip to our list of top stories next year.

For information regarding this and other related topics, please see:

• "PTAB Decides Patent Infringement Lawsuit Waives Eleventh Amendment Sovereign Immunity to Inter Partes Review, December 19, 2017
• "More Instances of Tribal Sovereign Immunity Shielding Patents from PTAB Invalidation," November 1, 2017
• "District Court Allows Mohawk Tribe to Join ANDA Litigation, Finds Patents at Issue Invalid," October 16, 2017
• "Mohawk Nation Exercises Sovereign Immunity in Inter Partes Review," September 25, 2017
• "Allergan Avails Itself of Sovereign Immunity," September 13, 2017


2.  Supreme Court to Decide Constitutionality of Post-Grant Review Proceedings

In November, the Supreme Court heard oral argument in Oil States Energy Services, LLC v. Greene's Energy Group, LLC, where the sole question being considered by the Court is:

1.Whether inter partes review––an adversarial process used by the Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) to analyze the validity of existing patents––violates the Constitution by extinguishing private property rights through a non-Article III forum without a jury.

Ultimately, Oil States Energy Services, LLC may come down to the Court's decision in the 1898 case of McCormick Harvesting Machine v. Aultman.  In that case, the patentee had sought to add claims via reissuance, but the Examiner found that at least some of the issued claims were invalid and sought to revoke the patent right.  The Supreme Court at the time determined that the Patent Office did not have the authority to do so, with the McCormick Harvesting Machine Court stating that:

It has been settled by repeated decisions of this court that when a patent has received the signature of the secretary of the interior, countersigned by the commissioner of patents, and has had affixed to it the seal of the patent office, it has passed beyond the control and jurisdiction of that office, and is not subject to be revoked or canceled by the president, or any other officer of the government.  It has become the property of the patentee, and as such is entitled to the same legal protection as other property.

The only authority competent to set a patent aside, or to annul it, or to correct it for any reason whatever, is vested in the courts of the United States, and not in the department which issued the patent.

Regardless of how the Supreme Court comes down with respect to the question presented, this case will no doubt appear on our top stories list again next year.

For information regarding this and other related topics, please see:

• "Is a Patent a Private or Public Right? -- Supreme Court Hears Oral Arguments in Oil States Energy Services, LLC. v. Greene's Energy Group, LLC," November 30, 2017
• "Oil States Energy Services, LLC v. Greene's Energy Group, LLC -- Positions Taken in Selected Amicus Curiae Briefs," November 27, 2017
• "Oil States Preview Take II -- Just What Did the Supreme Court Hold in McCormick Harvesting Machine v. Aultman?" November 21, 2017
• "Supreme Court Preview -- Oil States Energy Services, LLC v. Greene's Energy Group, LLC," November 15, 2017


1.  Supreme Court Narrows Venue Options for Patentees

In May, the Supreme Court, in TC Heartland LLC v. Kraft Foods Group Brands LLC, reversed the Federal Circuit and held that the word "resides" in the patent venue statute (28 U.S.C. § 1400(b)), "refers only to the State of incorporation" of the alleged infringer.  The case stemmed from a lawsuit brought by Kraft Foods Group Brands LLC against TC Heartland, LLC and Heartland Packaging Corp. in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware.  TC Heartland is incorporated in Indiana, and has its headquarters in Carmel, Indiana.  As a result, it moved to either dismiss the action on venue grounds (among others) or transfer venue to the Southern District of Indiana.  The District Court denied the motion, and TC Heartland petitioned the Federal Circuit for a writ of mandamus to either dismiss or transfer the case, which the Federal Circuit denied.  In reversing the Federal Circuit's decision, the Supreme Court looked at whether Congress had changed the meaning of § 1400(b) (the patent venue statute) when it amended 28 U.S.C. § 1391 (the general venue statute) in 1988 -- the Court had previously determined, in Fourco Glass Co. v. Transmirra Products Corp., 353 U.S. 222 (1957), that the general venue statute does not override the patent venue statute, and therefore that the residence of an accused infringing corporation was its place of incorporation.  In answering the above inquiry in the negative, the Court pointed out that Congress ordinarily provides a clear indication of its intent in the text of the amended provision, and that this clear indication was missing from § 1391.

For information regarding this and other related topics, please see:

• "More on Venue -- Plexxikon v. Novartis Pharmaceutical Corp. (N.D. Cal. 2017)," December 13, 2017
• "More Views on Venue -- Federal Circuit Addresses In re Micron Fallout," December 12, 2017
• "In re Micron Technology, Inc. (Fed. Cir. 2017)," November 22, 2017
• "Does the Federal Circuit's In re Cray Decision Suggest a New Business Model for Savvy Infringers?" October 1, 2017
• "Views on Venue -- Take Two: Did the District of Delaware Get It Right?" September 24, 2017
• "In re Cray Inc. (Fed. Cir. 2017)," September 21, 2017
• "Views on Venue -- District of Delaware Provides Some Guidance on Venue in ANDA Cases Post-TC Heartland," September 19, 2017
• "TC Heartland LLC v. Kraft Foods Group Brands LLC (2017)," May 22, 2017
• "TC Heartland LLC v. Kraft Foods Group Brands LLC -- 98 Professors Chime In," March 26, 2017
• "Supreme Court Preview -- TC Heartland LLC v. Kraft Foods Group Brands LLC," March 23, 2017
• "Xilinx, Inc. v. Papst Licensing GmbH & Co. KG (Fed. Cir. 2017)," February 19, 2017

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP
Contact
more
less

McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

Related Case Law

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.