What! My Flood Policy Doesn’t Cover Flood Damage?! This, and Other Pitfalls of NFIP Flood Insurance Policies

Ward and Smith, P.A.

Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (the "NFIP") to help make flood insurance more affordable in higher-risk areas. 

FEMA oversees the program and writes the terms of the Standard Flood Insurance Policy (the "Policy"), and the Federal government pays claims.  Since the NFIP is a government program designed to help those suffering from flood damage, you might think that the claims process is worry-free.  Unfortunately, that could not be more wrong!

In reality, the Policy language can seem unfair, and the NFIP claims process is full of deadlines, technicalities, and formalities.  Rather than giving a break to disaster victims, the NFIP and applicable Federal regulations allow insurance companies to deny coverage for even small missteps.  If you need to make a claim under an NFIP Policy, or if your claim has been denied, advice and guidance from someone experienced in dealing with NFIP claims is critical.

Below are just a few facts that are important for NFIP policyholders to know.

NFIP Policies are Administered by Private Insurance Companies, not FEMA

Almost all NFIP policies are sold by private insurance companies, such as Allstate or Nationwide to name a few.  Accordingly, the NFIP claims process and the decisions about whether to pay or deny claims is handled by an insurance company, not by FEMA.

The Federal government allows private insurance companies to sell flood policies using the Policy that FEMA has drafted through what is called the "Write Your Own" or "WYO" program.  The Federal government pays these private insurance companies certain fees for administering these claims.  Although the money to pay for covered NFIP claims comes from the Federal government, a private insurance company will make all decisions in the claims process.

Federal Law Protects These Private Insurers From "Bad Faith" Claims, Taking Away Rights that You May Have Under North Carolina Law

North Carolina law contains important protections that keep insurance companies from taking advantage of their insureds.  Unfortunately, those protections are not available when dealing with NFIP claims.

Under North Carolina law, insurance companies are prohibited from acting in "bad faith" by engaging in conduct such as unreasonably delaying claims or refusing to pay without good reason.  If an insurance company acts in "bad faith," the insured may be able to recover punitive damages.  The prospect of "bad faith" claims and other remedies under North Carolina law help keep insurance companies accountable for their actions and deter unfair practices.

However, Federal law provides that the same insurance companies cannot be held liable under North Carolina law for "bad faith," punitive damages, or attorneys' fees when they are administering NFIP flood claims.  For example, in a recent Court decision arising out of a North Carolina homeowners' NFIP claim, an Appellate Court ruled that Allstate was protected from liability for punitive damages that would otherwise be available under North Carolina law, even where the Trial Court found:

Allstate has endeavored at every step of the process to deny coverage to plaintiffs' worthy claim…This is an example of the worst kind of misconduct on the part of an insurance carrier with one of its insured: plaintiffs did everything they knew to do, including providing strong and uncontroverted proof that the damage to the house was from the flood waters, and, yet, Allstate engaged in a long pattern of denial and cover-up.

This should serve as a warning to flood victims for two reasons.  First, there is the potential for private insurance companies to engage in unfair conduct relating to NFIP claims, as the Trial Court found above.  Second, flood victims have little legal recourse to hold those private insurers accountable for unfair conduct, such as unreasonably delaying in paying a claim or flatly refusing to pay a claim for no good reason.

Exclusions Result in Some Flood Damage Not Being Covered

The Policy covers "loss or damage to insured property, directly caused by flood."  This seems obvious:  if flood causes damage, the Policy provides coverage.  Not so fast!  The Policy also contains some exclusions.  One of the exclusions, called the "earth movement exclusion," actually excludes coverage for damage caused by the flood!  That exclusion states:

We do not insure for loss to property caused directly by earth movement even if the earth movement is caused by flood.  Some examples of earth movement that we do not cover are…land subsidence…sinkholes…de-stabilization or movement of land that result from accumulation of water…or gradual erosion.

This exclusion does not become an issue in the most common NFIP claim – where floodwaters enter a home and damage floors, walls, or other interior finishes.  However, this exclusion is a very big issue for any NFIP claim that relates to a home or building's foundation.  If, for example, floodwaters wash away or undermine the soil supporting a home's foundation, resulting in shifting, sinking, tilting, or destabilization of the structure and/or cracking or separation of supporting walls, the "earth movement exclusion" could mean a denial of the claim.  Likewise, if, during or after the flood event, a portion of the foundation settles, causing cracking or separation of walls and/or uneven surfaces, the "earth movement exclusion" may mean a denial of the claim.  Court decisions interpreting this exclusion depend on the detailed facts of each case and can be unpredictable.

The "earth movement exclusion" is particularly surprising because it excludes coverage for damage that unquestionably was caused by a flood.  As a result, understanding the precise nature of the damage to your home and presenting it to your insurance company with precision is critical to having your claim paid.  If the foundation of your home or building was impacted by Hurricane Florence, you are in particular need of experienced assistance in navigating the NFIP claim process.

Proof of Loss Warning No. 1 – The Insurance Company Doesn't Have to Help You

A "Proof of Loss" is the document that informs the insurance company what was damaged, how it was damaged, and how much you expect the repairs to cost.  The Proof of Loss must be submitted to the insurance company within 60 days from the date of loss, unless FEMA has published an extended deadline, as it did for Hurricane Florence claims (see below).  FEMA has published an official Proof of Loss form on its website.

The insurance company has no obligation to provide the Proof of Loss form to you, to tell you the deadline for submitting it, to help you complete it, or to even let you know that it is required in the first place.  Do not wait to receive a Proof of Loss form from your insurance agent or from the adjuster.  The fact that a homeowner was unaware of the need to submit the Proof of Loss is no excuse.

FEMA has issued a bulletin that seems to relax this requirement for Hurricane Florence claims, but which may be a trap for unwary flood victims.  The bulletin, dated September 18, 2018, directs WYO insurance companies to pay flood claims from Hurricane Florence based on signed reports from their adjusters without requiring Proof of Loss forms from the insured.  While this sounds helpful to flood victims, keep in mind that this only applies to amounts which the insurance company and its adjuster have initially decided to pay.  Often, owners are not satisfied with these initial offers.  A Proof of Loss is likely still required if the homeowner does not agree with the amount in the insurance company adjuster's report.

Proof of Loss Warning No. 2 – Do Not Miss the Deadline

FEMA's September 18, 2018 bulletin formally extends the deadline to submit the Proof of Loss forms for Hurricane Florence flood claims until 365 days from the date of loss.  Notice that this 365-day deadline runs from the date of loss, meaning the first date that floodwaters could possibly have caused damage to your home, not 365 days from the date that FEMA's September 18, 2018 bulletin was issued.

Under Federal law, this deadline is strictly enforced.  A submission even one day after the deadline is a valid basis for an insurance company to deny a flood claim.  In fact, Federal regulations, Court decisions, and the Policy language actually suggest that an insurance company is required to deny a claim if the Proof of Loss is not submitted by the applicable deadline.

This is another instance where the NFIP is much harsher than North Carolina law.  Under North Carolina law, an insurance company cannot base on a denial on a late submission of information unless the insurance company could show that the delay actually harmed its ability to investigate the claim (such as by preventing an assessment of the damage before a building was torn down).

Proof of Loss Warning No. 3 – Submit As Much Detail As Possible For Repair Costs

It is not sufficient to send in any Proof of Loss.  Federal regulations require a "complete" and "adequate" Proof of Loss.  To be complete and adequate, the Proof of Loss must include, among other things "detailed repair estimates."

There are several difficulties with the requirement that a flood victim provides "detailed repair estimates."  First, there is no definition of what this means.  In other words, how detailed is detailed enough?  Clearly, just providing a single number representing the total cost to repair is not sufficient.  Breaking down the needed repair work into all required categories, such as "drywall," "flooring," or "equipment rental," and providing a cost estimate for each category is likely sufficient.  However, some WYO insurance companies have claimed that specificity such as the number of feet of drywall and the price per foot of drywall must be included.

Second, the flood victim likely will need help from a contractor, engineer, or other professional to prepare a sufficient repair estimate, and FEMA imposes strict deadlines for the submission of this information.  This is less of a concern for Hurricane Florence damage, where the deadline has been extended.

Third, FEMA's form Proof of Loss does not provide space for a homeowner to list a detailed repair estimate, nor does the form provide any type of formatting or guidance on how to do it.  Instead, the form Proof of Loss is one page.  This may lead a homeowner to assume that brevity is expected when the opposite is true.

More Confusing Deadlines – A FEMA Appeal Does Not Stop the One-Year Deadline to File a Lawsuit

If an NFIP flood claim is denied, either in whole or in part, by a WYO carrier, an owner has two options:  (a) appeal to FEMA and ask FEMA to review the insurance company's decision to deny the claim, or (b) file a lawsuit against the insurance company.  Not surprisingly, both of these options come with deadlines.

If the owner elects to appeal the denial to FEMA, written notice must be submitted to FEMA within 60 days of the insurer's denial of the claim.  FEMA will then confirm receipt of the appeal and request any additional information that it may require.  FEMA states that it will make a decision on the appeal within 90 days of its receipt of all requested information.

If the owner is unsatisfied with FEMA's decision on appeal, the next step is to file a lawsuit.  Note that an appeal to FEMA is not necessary and that a lawsuit can be filed upon receipt of the denial from the insurance company.

Whether or not an appeal with FEMA is filed, the owner has a firm deadline to file a lawsuit.  A suit must be filed against the insurance company within one year from the date of the insurance company's denial of the claim.  Further, any lawsuit against a WYO insurance company must be filed in the Federal District Court for the district where the property is located.  Flood victims may not file a lawsuit in their local state courts. 

This one-year deadline to file a lawsuit may be confusing in several ways.  For example, an owner might logically think that the deadline is a year from receipt of FEMA's decision on appeal.  That is incorrect.  Or, it is possible that FEMA would not issue a decision on an owner's appeal within a year from the date of the flood.  If that happened, the owner would need to file the lawsuit by the one-year deadline even though FEMA had not yet made a decision on the appeal.

Flood claims can involve significant amounts of money, and almost always come at times when homeowners are stressed and time is of the essence to get repairs made.  On top of all that, as shown above, NFIP flood policies are confusing at best, and provide plenty of opportunities for insurance companies to deny claims based on technicalities.  Consult with an attorney experienced with NFIP claims to ensure that you properly present your claim and get the coverage to which you are entitled.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Ward and Smith, P.A. | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Ward and Smith, P.A.

Ward and Smith, P.A. on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.