In recognition of National Pay Equity Day, President Obama took two executive actions on April 8, 2014 to continue his pay equity agenda: (1) President Obama signed Executive Order on Non-Retaliation for Disclosure of Compensation Information (“Executive Order”) amending Executive Order 11246 to prohibit federal contractors from discriminating or retaliating against employees or applicants for discussing their compensation with one another; and (2) President Obama issued a memorandum directing the Department of Labor (“DOL”) to publish regulations requiring federal contractors and subcontractors to submit pay data, by race and gender, for their employees (“Compensation Memorandum”). These executive actions, along with President Obama’s Executive Order to increase the minimum wage for employees working on federal contracts, mark another significant step in this Administration’s push for increasing enforcement and oversight over federal contractors’ compensation practices.
The Executive Order mandates that federal contractors cannot “discharge or in any manner discriminate against” employees and applicants who have “inquired about, discussed, or disclosed” their own or another employee’s or applicant’s compensation information. The Executive Order explains that the reason for this change is that it will “enhance the ability of Federal contractors and their employees to detect and remediate unlawful discriminatory practices, which will contribute to a more efficient market in Federal contracting.”
The Executive Order excludes from this protection unauthorized disclosures by employees who learn of the compensation information as part of their essential job functions (e.g., HR and compensation managers) unless (1) they are disclosing compensation information to someone who already has access to that information; or (2) they are disclosing that in response to a formal complaint or charge in furtherance of an investigation. DOL will be required to issue regulations implementing this requirement by September 15, 2014.
The Compensation Memorandum is premised on a claim that the pay gap between men and women is a direct result of a “lack of sufficiently robust and reliable data on employee compensation.” It directs DOL to propose regulations requiring federal contractors and subcontractors to submit data on the compensation paid to their employees, including data by sex and race.
When creating the proposed regulations, the Executive Order instructs DOL to consider:
“maximiz[ing] efficiency and effectiveness” by focusing efforts on contractors where the reported data shows pay violations;
using the data to “encourage greater voluntary compliance” with compensation laws by federal contractors and “analyz[ing] industry trends”;
minimizing the burden on federal contractors, particularly small businesses; and
“avoid[ing] new record-keeping requirements” by relying on “existing reporting frameworks to collect the summary data.”
Despite DOL’s announcement in its current regulatory agenda that OFCCP planned to publish a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“NPRM”) on the compensation data collection tool in January 2014, no proposal has yet been published. The Presidential Memorandum will expedite the publication of NPRM because it directs the DOL to propose regulations by August 6, 2014.
Impact on Federal Contractors
The Executive Order prohibiting discrimination and retaliation against employees and applicants does not change much for federal contractors. Sections 7 and 8 of the National Labor Relations Act already provide employees and applicants the right to discuss their compensation information.
The effect of the Compensation Memorandum’s requirement that contractors to disclose their compensation information could be significant, but the precise impact will depend on the details of the regulations. As of now, it is unclear whether OFCCP will develop new or additional compensation reporting requirements and how OFCCP will use the compensation tool to store and analyze compensation data.
We expect OFCCP to continue to ratchet-up its investigation of contractors’ compensation information during audits. This means that contractors should be vigilant about reviewing their compensation practices now and proactively addressing pay disparities before an audit. Now is the time for contractors to consider undertaking pay equity studies and reviews of their compensation policies and practices under the protection of the attorney-client privilege.