Court of Justice clarifies analysis required to determine if discriminatory pricing amounts to an abuse of dominance

by Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner
Contact

Summary

The Court of Justice of the EU has confirmed that price discrimination by a dominant firm is not in itself illegal under competition law. However, it will infringe Article 102 TFEU if it is capable of distorting competition between the dominant firm’s upstream or downstream trading partners.

The judgment provides useful guidance to firms with significant market power, their rivals and trading partners. It remains to be seen whether it will make EU competition authorities more inclined to pursue such cases.

Context

Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (the “TFEU”) prohibits an abuse of a dominant position in so far as it may affect trade between EU Member States. Part (c) of the second paragraph of Article 102 provides that such abuse may, in particular, consist in applying dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a “competitive disadvantage”.

In this case, the relevant parties were Cooperativa de Gestão dos Direitos dos Artistas Intérpretes ou Executantes (“GDA”) and MEO – Serviços de Comunicações e Multimédia SA (“MEO”). GDA is a collecting society for artists and performers, and the only entity entrusted with the collective management of their copyright rights in Portugal. MEO is a provider of paid television signal transmission services and television content to consumers. MEO is a customer of GDA.

In 2014, MEO lodged a complaint with the Portuguese competition authority, arguing that GDA, as a dominant company, had been charging discriminatory prices for equivalent transactions by applying different terms and conditions to MEO from those it applied to another of its customers, NOS Comunicações SA. The competition authority decided not to take further action on the grounds that there was no evidence of sufficiently probative value of an abuse of a dominant position. In particular, the Portuguese competition authority considered that the difference in tariffs paid by MEO as compared to its rivals was minimal when compared to MEO’s average costs, and it had not prevented MEO from growing financially over the relevant period.

MEO challenged this decision in court. The Portuguese court referred a number of questions to the Court of Justice of the EU (the “Court”). These questions boiled down to whether the concept of ‘competitive disadvantage’, for the purposes of subparagraph (c) of the second paragraph of Article 102 TFEU, requires:

  • an analysis of the specific effects of differentiated prices being applied by an dominant undertaking on the competitive situation of its customers; and
  • the seriousness of those effects to be taken into account.

The Court’s Approach

The Court confirmed that, in order to constitute an abuse, differentiated pricing by a dominant entity must tend to distort competition between the dominant entity’s (upstream or downstream) business partners in the market in which those business partners operate. It is not necessary for the dominant entity’s behaviour to affect its own competitive position on the market in which it operates. Discriminatory pricing can therefore amount to an abuse even if the dominant company is not present on the market in which the relevant prices are applied.

When assessing the effect on the dominant undertaking’s trading partners, the mere fact that some operators are charged a higher price than their competitors for an equivalent service does not mean that the “competitive disadvantage” criterion is met. However, it is not necessary for proof to be adduced of an actual, quantifiable deterioration in the competitive position of the business partners taken individually. Instead, regard must be had to the whole circumstances of the case in order to determine whether the dominant company’s behaviour produces or is capable of producing a distortion of competition between its trading partners. For an infringement to arise, there must be an effect on the costs, profits or other relevant interests of the trading partners sufficient to affect the competitive position of one or more of them.

Relevant circumstances to be taken into account may include:

  • the undertaking’s dominant position;
  • the parties’ negotiating power as regards the tariffs;
  • the conditions and arrangements for charging those tariffs;
  • their duration and their amount; and
  • the possible existence of a strategy on the part of the dominant undertaking aimed at excluding from the downstream market one of its trading partners which is at least as efficient as that trading partner’s competitors.

In terms of whether it is necessary to consider the seriousness of a possible competitive disadvantage, the Court stresses that it is not appropriate to fix an appreciability threshold for an abuse of dominance to arise.

Application to GDA

The Court held that the referring court should take into account the following factors to determine whether GDA’s behaviour amounted to an infringement of Article 102 TFEU:

  • as one of its largest customers, MEO had a certain negotiating power vis-à-vis GDA;
  • the prices charged to MEO by GDA were established by an arbitration decision;
  • the differentiated prices were applied between 2010 and 2013;
  • the amounts MEO paid annually to GDA represented a relatively low percentage of the total costs borne by MEO for the relevant service and the differentiation in tariffs had a limited effect on MEO’s profits in that context; and
  • GDA had no interest in principle in excluding one of its trade partners from the downstream market, as it was not vertically integrated.

Consequences for Business

This judgment follows a similar approach to that adopted by the Court in the recent Intel judgment which stressed the need to assess the actual or potential effects of an alleged abuse before an infringement can be found (see our previous article here).

It therefore marks a further endorsement by the EU’s highest court of the European Commission’s preferred approach to Article 102 cases and may encourage the Commission and its national counterparts in EU member states to bring more Article 102 (and specifically discriminatory pricing) cases, provided that there is sufficient economic evidence to demonstrate the necessary competitive disadvantage has occurred.

The judgment may however provide some comfort to parties in a dominant or potentially dominant position, in that it makes clear that there is no absolute requirement on such parties (under Article 102(c)) to apply uniform prices to their downstream customers in relation to equivalent transactions. Such parties’ capacity to engage in price discrimination is limited (by Article 102(c)) only to the extent that these practices are capable of resulting in a distortion of competition between their downstream customers.

From the perspective of firms who do business with dominant or potentially dominant businesses, the judgment serves as a reminder that price discrimination is not inherently anti-competitive – and so is not as a matter of course challengeable on competition grounds. However, the MEO judgment provides useful guidance on the relevant factors that should be taken into account when assessing whether a challenge is likely to be successful and makes clear that there is no requirement to find an actual, quantifiable deterioration in the competitive position of the dominant company’s business partners for an infringement to be found.

[View source.]

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner
Contact
more
less

Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
Sign up using*

Already signed up? Log in here

*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
Privacy Policy (Updated: October 8, 2015):
hide

JD Supra provides users with access to its legal industry publishing services (the "Service") through its website (the "Website") as well as through other sources. Our policies with regard to data collection and use of personal information of users of the Service, regardless of the manner in which users access the Service, and visitors to the Website are set forth in this statement ("Policy"). By using the Service, you signify your acceptance of this Policy.

Information Collection and Use by JD Supra

JD Supra collects users' names, companies, titles, e-mail address and industry. JD Supra also tracks the pages that users visit, logs IP addresses and aggregates non-personally identifiable user data and browser type. This data is gathered using cookies and other technologies.

The information and data collected is used to authenticate users and to send notifications relating to the Service, including email alerts to which users have subscribed; to manage the Service and Website, to improve the Service and to customize the user's experience. This information is also provided to the authors of the content to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

JD Supra does not sell, rent or otherwise provide your details to third parties, other than to the authors of the content on JD Supra.

If you prefer not to enable cookies, you may change your browser settings to disable cookies; however, please note that rejecting cookies while visiting the Website may result in certain parts of the Website not operating correctly or as efficiently as if cookies were allowed.

Email Choice/Opt-out

Users who opt in to receive emails may choose to no longer receive e-mail updates and newsletters by selecting the "opt-out of future email" option in the email they receive from JD Supra or in their JD Supra account management screen.

Security

JD Supra takes reasonable precautions to insure that user information is kept private. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. However, please note that no method of transmitting or storing data is completely secure and we cannot guarantee the security of user information. Unauthorized entry or use, hardware or software failure, and other factors may compromise the security of user information at any time.

If you have reason to believe that your interaction with us is no longer secure, you must immediately notify us of the problem by contacting us at info@jdsupra.com. In the unlikely event that we believe that the security of your user information in our possession or control may have been compromised, we may seek to notify you of that development and, if so, will endeavor to do so as promptly as practicable under the circumstances.

Sharing and Disclosure of Information JD Supra Collects

Except as otherwise described in this privacy statement, JD Supra will not disclose personal information to any third party unless we believe that disclosure is necessary to: (1) comply with applicable laws; (2) respond to governmental inquiries or requests; (3) comply with valid legal process; (4) protect the rights, privacy, safety or property of JD Supra, users of the Service, Website visitors or the public; (5) permit us to pursue available remedies or limit the damages that we may sustain; and (6) enforce our Terms & Conditions of Use.

In the event there is a change in the corporate structure of JD Supra such as, but not limited to, merger, consolidation, sale, liquidation or transfer of substantial assets, JD Supra may, in its sole discretion, transfer, sell or assign information collected on and through the Service to one or more affiliated or unaffiliated third parties.

Links to Other Websites

This Website and the Service may contain links to other websites. The operator of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using the Service through the Website and link to another site, you will leave the Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We shall have no responsibility or liability for your visitation to, and the data collection and use practices of, such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of this Website and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our privacy policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use the Service or Website following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes. If you do not agree with the terms of this Policy, as it may be amended from time to time, in whole or part, please do not continue using the Service or the Website.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this privacy statement, the practices of this site, your dealings with this Web site, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: info@jdsupra.com.

- hide
*With LinkedIn, you don't need to create a separate login to manage your free JD Supra account, and we can make suggestions based on your needs and interests. We will not post anything on LinkedIn in your name. Or, sign up using your email address.