Responsible Research During the COVID-19 Pandemic


The world has been thrown off its stride by the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting disease, “COVID-19.” At the time of this Alert, the full impact of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 is still unknown. As an example, many institutions and companies know that the virus and current containment efforts will disrupt their ongoing clinical trials and other research activities—such as by necessitating changes to study protocols, slowing enrollment, or halting studies altogether—but are not yet sure of the extent or consequences of this disruption. Institutions, in particular, are also struggling with how to address a need for urgent IRB review of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related research studies, especially at a time when the institutions face competing priorities, and gathering a group of IRB members in the same room may be practically difficult, unsafe, or even prohibited.

While helping institution and company clients navigate these challenges, we have developed a list of issues that the virus may present in regard to ongoing research studies, new SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related research studies, and expanded access treatment uses of investigational products for COVID-19 patients. The list of issues that follows is not exhaustive and best practices continue to evolve. Nevertheless, it hopefully provides a helpful check point to identify topics that your institution or company may need to consider in the days ahead as we all continue to come to terms with the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on the research enterprise.

Issues to Consider Regarding Ongoing Research Studies

Below is a list of issues for institutions and companies to consider in relation to the impact of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 on their ongoing clinical trials and other research studies. We expect that federal agencies—particularly the Office for Human Research Protections (“OHRP”) and Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”)—may issue additional guidance in the days ahead relevant to many of these topics.

  • Evaluating whether to suspend some research studies. Institutions facing the possibility of burdened resources and staff, as well as an influx of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-related protocols, may wish to evaluate whether other, non-essential research studies should be suspended, particularly given the potential risks of in-person study appointments during the pandemic. Companies, for their part, may wish to evaluate whether to suspend certain of their research studies that may provide little or no direct benefit to participants. The challenge for institutions and companies, and for IRBs reviewing their plans, will be to determine the criteria used to determine which research studies to suspend. Factors such as the health of the participants, the possible treatment benefit of the intervention or investigational drug/device, the setting or frequency of study visits, the potential need to reallocate personnel and other resources, and the risks of transitioning participants off the study protocol will all need to be weighed.
  • Identifying reporting obligations in the event of a suspension. If an institution directs that a study be paused indefinitely due to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 (e.g., due to resource constraints or other concerns regarding managing risks), it should consider any consequential reporting obligations to federal funding agencies (e.g., NIH),, industry sponsors or other private funders, and participants. To the extent a suspension is directed by the IRB of record, reporting obligations to federal oversight agencies (e.g., OHRP and/or FDA) also need to be considered. Likewise, if a company suspends a study due to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, it may also have reporting obligations to federal oversight agencies (e.g., FDA),, institutions, IRBs, participants, and others (e.g., patient communities).
  • Addressing immediate hazards to research participants without prior IRB review and approval. Given the nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, circumstances may arise in which an ongoing research study may present an “immediate hazard” to participants such that changes to the research protocol or procedures responsive to the pandemic (e.g., using telehealth appointments or home visits, shipping study drug instead of dispensing it in person, eliminating certain study procedures, changing the eligibility criteria, or allowing blood draws and other testing at remote facilities) may be warranted without prior review and approval by the IRB as contemplated by the Common Rule and FDA’s IRB regulations. Institutions should discuss with their IRBs what changes to existing research, if any, will be required to be submitted to the IRB for pre-review and how to communicate that effectively to the research community.
  • Providing clear communication regarding ongoing studies and points of contact. Companies should consider proactively reaching out to their trial sites to communicate regarding the impact of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 on particular studies or at a minimum to provide contact information for the sites to communicate with the company on COVID-19related issues.
  • Considering re-review by the IRB or changes to informed consent. For any ongoing research that will continue, researchers, companies, and IRBs will need to consider whether the risks of the study are altered by the COVID-19 pandemic such that re-review by the IRB is warranted and/or changes to the informed consent should be made. For example, if a particular study drug under investigation has immunosuppressive qualities, is a more explicit review by the IRB and discussion of the risks of participating during the COVID-19 pandemic warranted? For ongoing research that requires in-person meetings, do the potential risks attendant to social interaction need to be considered by the reviewing IRB and included in any informed consent form? Do previously enrolled participants need to re-consent where it is determined that new risks are raised by virtue of the COVID-19 pandemic, or should changes be implemented on a prospective basis only?
  • Determining how to communicate changes to informed consent. To the extent companies, researchers, or IRBs determine that changes to an informed consent for ongoing research are warranted, they may consider whether this is best accomplished by modifications to the risk section of the existing consent form, or whether providing a separate risk information sheet related to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is sufficient.
  • Assessing the impact of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 on validity of study results. Researchers and IRBs will need to consider whether, for research that continues, the COVID-19 pandemic affects the validity of the study results or otherwise undermines the trial design in a manner that needs to be controlled for in connection with the research. For example, will the risks in attending study visits created by the COVID-19 pandemic make it more likely that the sickest participants will withdraw from the study before completion? Or will the uneven distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic across the globe and its effect on particular research sites undermine efforts to enroll participants from varied locations and backgrounds?

Challenges Presented by New SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19-Related Research Studies

In addition to affecting existing unrelated research, COVID-19 will increasingly be the subject of new studies focused on the illness itself and on the SARS-CoV-2virus, and on potential diagnostic tests, treatments, and vaccine candidates. Below is a list of issues to consider for institutions and companies conducting or funding these new studies.

  • Determining whether the proposed activity in fact constitutes research and/or a clinical investigation. The Common Rule specifically excludes public health surveillance activities from the definition of research. These activities include collection and testing of information or biospecimens by—or as requested, ordered, required, or authorized by—a public health authority as necessary for the authority to monitor, assess, or investigate disease outbreaks, to provide awareness, and to set priorities during a public health crisis. Institutions and IRBs may need to develop guidance for investigators as to the scope of this public health surveillance exclusion. Regardless, if an activity involves a drug or device regulated by FDA, such as vaccines and in vitrodiagnostic tests (including laboratory developed tests), FDA regulations governing clinical investigations may apply.
  • Determining whether research or a clinical investigation falls within a category for which a Secretarial or FDA waiver of certain regulatory requirements has been granted or for which the regulations permit exceptions. Under the Common Rule, agency heads have authority to waive some or all of the regulatory requirements for specific research or classes of research as long as alternative procedures will be followed that are consistent with the ethical principles set forth in the Belmont Report. On the application of a sponsor, FDA has similar authority to waive regulatory requirements for IRBs and IRB review. It remains to be seen whether HHS or other Common Rule agencies or FDA will issue such a waiver specifically in connection with SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. However, in some cases an existing waiver, such as HHS’ waiver of informed consent requirements in connection with certain planned emergency research, which tracks FDA’s regulatory exception from informed consent requirements for similar research, may be relevant (assuming all criteria are met).
  • Identifying an IRB and/or IRB consultants with expertise in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 or, more generally, in infectious disease. When IRB review is required, both the Common Rule and FDA IRB regulations require IRBs to be sufficiently qualified through (among other things) the experience, expertise, and knowledge of their members to review proposed research. The regulations also permit IRBs to seek consultation from individuals with competence in special areas when needed. In the context of research on SARS-CoV-2 andCOVID-19, expertise in the virus or illness itself, in infectious disease generally, in epidemiological and other public health research, and in law may be important for an IRB that will review new protocols. If existing internal IRBs do not have this expertise or cannot identify appropriate consultants to provide it, institutions may need to consider entering an IRB reliance arrangement to utilize another organization’s IRB or an independent IRB with relevant expertise.
  • Creating a SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 special IRB panel. In order to focus resources and help prioritize SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 protocols, and where available expertise permits, it may be useful to consider whether to establish a special IRB or IRB panel to review only such protocols and to do so on a more ad hoc and urgent basis to ensure efficiency of review. Additionally, institutions may want to consider whether a separate institutional pre-review should be established and tied to overall institutional decision-making regarding the deployment of resources during a pandemic and overall scientific merit review. This can help ensure that the special IRB panel will only receive for review potential protocols that the institution has deemed are scientifically meritorious and worthy of investment of the necessary institutional resources.
  • Ensuring that ethical principles and related regulatory requirements continue to be followed despite potential pressure to speed or shortcut usual research or research review processes. In times of public health crisis, the potential for human subjects violations and the need to keep underlying ethical principles in mind may be greater than ever. In the absence of an applicable Secretarial or FDA waiver or agency guidance that may be issued, regulatory requirements continue to apply. Among the areas that may warrant particular care by institutions, IRBs, researchers, and companies in the context of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 research are attending to protections for vulnerable populations while ensuring equitable subject selection and thoughtful research design, avoiding coercive subject compensation structures, and ensuring adequate informed consent including discussion of potential risks of participation.

Expanded Access Use for COVID-19 Patients

In addition to research on new potential COVID-19 treatment regimens, institutions are beginning to treat patients with investigational drugs through expanded access treatment protocols under either single patient or treatment INDs.

  • Considering whether to proceed without an expanded access agreement. Institutions should consider whether, assuming companies do not insist on an agreement documenting the arrangement, institutions are similarly comfortable moving forward with receiving the investigational product without negotiating a written agreement.
  • Assessing using a simple Memorandum of Understanding as an alternative. If institutions or companies have specific terms they feel are important to document in a written agreement before receiving or providing an investigational product (e.g., quantity of drug and length of time for which it will be provided, any cost associated or whether it will be provided free of charge, timely notification by the company to the institution if the drug will no longer be available so that expectations can be managed and other options considered, and any terms around information that the company may expect to be reported by the institution), a simple Memorandum of Understanding may be possible. We are preparing a sample MOU for institutions and companies to consider as a relatively simple template for documenting the transmission of investigational products for COVID-19 treatment use that aims to meet the needs of both companies and institutions. We will circulate that to our clients and colleagues shortly.

Aside on the Development of New Tests, Vaccines, and Treatments
for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19

Although our comments here focus primarily on considerations in the context of conducting clinical trials and other interventional human subjects research, it is worth noting that important considerations also exist for in-house research or clinical laboratories engaged in developing new diagnostic tests, vaccines or potential treatments for COVID-19. Specific FDA and CMS requirements may need to be navigated carefully. For research laboratories in particular, to the extent identifiable (or re-linkable) human specimens are being utilized in the development of new diagnostic tests, the research laboratories may want to have a proactive conversation with the reviewing IRB of record to ensure that a plan is in place for addressing any potential positive results in a manner that is compliant with CLIA and any related state laboratory regulations. For clinical laboratories, understanding when an IDE will be needed and the extent to which FDA may require pre-approval before the test is available is key. Notably, the FDA has taken recent steps to reduce the burden of the Emergency Use Authorization (“EUA”) process for CLIA-certified laboratories developing diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, permitting the use of validated tests during the time the laboratory organizations are pursuing EUA approval, and exercising enforcement discretion where states elect to assume responsibility for the development and performance of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 testing by CLIA-certified laboratories within their jurisdiction.

* * *

We will continue to monitor SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 developments and the ongoing implications it may have on institutions and companies.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Verrill | Attorney Advertising

Written by:


Verrill on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.