Top 10 Highlights of Canadian IP Law and Practice in 2017

by Smart & Biggar

Smart & Biggar

2017 was a year of significant developments to Canadian IP law and practice, with important court decisions and numerous legislative amendments.  We have taken the opportunity to review the top 10 highlights from the past year.

1. Supreme Court of Canada strikes down “promise doctrine”, upholds AstraZeneca’s NEXIUM patent as useful

In AstraZeneca Canada Inc v Apotex Inc, 2017 SCC 36, the Supreme Court of Canada abolished the controversial “promise of the patent” doctrine, under which patentees had to prove that the claimed invention was useful for any “promised” uses found in the specification. This judge-made doctrine had been invoked to invalidate numerous patents over the past decade, and as previously reported, resulted in a trade dispute between Eli Lilly Co. and Canada under NAFTA's investor-state arbitration regime.

For years, patentees had argued that the doctrine was arbitrary and inconsistent, often resulting in invalidation of patents that were upheld elsewhere. Finally, in June 2017, the Supreme Court unanimously abolished the doctrine, holding that patentees need only establish a “scintilla” of utility relating to the subject-matter of the invention. The decision was a victory for AstraZeneca Canada Inc. (whose patent for its blockbuster gastrointestinal drug NEXIUM was declared valid), and also for patentees, as the Canadian standard has now been brought closer to other jurisdictions in respect of applicable utility requirements for patentability. 

AstraZeneca was represented by Smart & Biggar from trial all the way to the Supreme Court by a team that included Gunars A Gaikis, Yoon Kang and Lynn Ing.

More details on the Supreme Court decision is available in our IP Update from June 30, 2017.  

2. Dow awarded $645 million, the largest for patent infringement in Canadian history

In The Dow Chemical Company v Nova Chemical Corporation, 2017 FC 637, a record amount was awarded in a patent infringement lawsuit involving polymers used in heavy plastic bags, pallet wrapping and food packaging. The Dow Chemical Company, the successful plaintiff, elected to recover the defendant's infringing profits as opposed to damages from lost sales. The Court awarded an amount for infringing activity that took place after the publication of the patent application but in advance of the patent issuing, and an amount representing the springboard profits enjoyed by the defendant following expiry of the patent as a result of the defendant's infringing activity prior to expiry. After a reference on quantification, Dow Chemical was awarded C$645 million, including pre-judgment interest which was calculated based on a profits-on-profits approach.

Dow Chemical was successfully represented by a trial team from Smart & Biggar which included Steven Garland, Jeremy Want, Colin Ingram, Daniel Davies and Kevin Graham.

More details on the Dow Chemical decision is available in our IP Update from July 5, 2017.

3. Accounting of Profits and the Non-Infringing Alternative Defense

The Federal Court of Appeal released a significant decision on accounting for profits, a remedy for patent infringement in Canada: Apotex Inc v ADIR2017 FCA 23. The appeal concerned the non-infringing alternative (“NIA”) defense raised by Apotex to reduce the profits it had to disgorge for its wrongful export sales of generic perindopril (COVERSYL). The NIA defence contends that an infringer’s profits, in full or part, are not causally attributable to the infringement.

The Court of Appeal acknowledged the availability of the NIA defence.  In particular, an infringer must establish that in the hypothetical world it “could have” and “would have” obtained and used the NIA. To prove “could have”, the infringer must demonstrate that it was possible for it to secure the NIA; to prove “would have”, the infringer must demonstrate that events would have transpired in such a way as to put them in that position.

More detail on the perindopril decision is available in our IP Update from February 21, 2017. 

Later, the Federal Court considered the same defence in AstraZeneca Canada Inc v Apotex Inc, 2017 FC 726, relating to Apotex’s infringement of the omeprazole formulation patent (AstraZeneca’s LOSEC). As discussed in further detail in our IP Update from September 12, 2017, Apotex failed to prove that it could and would have sold a NIA at any time during infringement.  AstraZeneca was successfully represented by a trial team from Smart & Biggar, including Nancy Pei, Mark Biernacki, J. Sheldon Hamilton, Urszula Wojtyra, Abigail Smith, Paul Jorgenson and Brandon Heard.

4. Expediting trademark litigation in Canada’s Federal Courts

On November 6, 2017, the Federal Court of Appeal issued its decision in Group III International Ltd v Travelway Group International Ltd, 2017 FCA 215.  Substantively, the decision represents a departure from the principle of a registered trademark acting as a complete defense to trademark infringement, as the respondent’s use of its own registered trademarks was found to be an infringement of the applicant’s registered trademarks.

From a practical perspective, as highlighted in our IP Update from December 11, 2017, this decision suggests that the streamlined application procedure available in the Federal Court – in which parties are limited to documentary evidence without discovery, and in which the Court issues a decision after an oral hearing rather than a full trial – may nevertheless permit a fulsome recovery of damages.  As such, despite previous case law to the contrary, parties proceeding by way of application rather than a conventional action may not, in fact, be leaving money on the table.

5. Clarification regarding the use of keywords in advertising

In 2015, the British Columbia Supreme Court issued a decision (2015 BCSC 1470) that garnered significant attention for its conclusions that: a) purchasing a competitor’s trademark as a keyword for search engine advertising was not itself sufficient to constitute passing off, and b) the assessment of when a defendant’s activity was likely to cause consumer confusion was to be done only after the consumer had reached the defendant’s website.  In particular, the second conclusion appeared to run contrary to the established case law.

On January 26, 2017, the British Columbia Court of Appeal issued its decision in Vancouver Community College v Vancouver Career College (Burnaby) Inc, 2017 BCCA 41, which affirmed the lower court’s first conclusion, and overturned the second.  Specifically, the BCCA agreed that the mere purchase of a competitor’s trademark as a keyword for search engine advertising does not, without more, constitute passing off.  However, the BCCA found that that the lower court erred in assessing confusion only once a consumer reaches a defendant’s website; instead, the appropriate time to consider confusion is at an earlier stage, when the consumer views the search engine results page that displays the defendant’s sponsored link.

Ultimately, a party that engages in keyword and search engine advertising using the trademarks of its competitors should proceed cautiously, and ensure that the manner in which its sponsored links are displayed by search engines does not cause confusion with those trademarks. More details regarding the BCCA decision and its implications can be found in our January 30, 2017 IP Update.

6. A willingness by the Federal Court to protect trade dress and goodwill

As reported in our IP Update from June 19, 2017, the Smart & Biggar team of François Guay, Mark Evans, Ekaterina Tsimberis and Renaud Garon Gendron successfully represented the plaintiff in the Federal Court’s decision in Diageo Canada Inc v Heaven Hill Distilleries Inc, 2017 FC 571. The plaintiff, one of the world’s largest producers of spirits, led evidence of the trade dress associated with its well-known CAPTAIN MORGAN brand, as well as the extensive goodwill associated with that trade dress and the plaintiff’s registered trademarks.

In the result, the Court agreed with the plaintiff that the defendant had passed off its ADMIRAL NELSON’S rum products as those of the plaintiff, and infringed the plaintiff’s registered trademarks for its CAPTAIN MORGAN character and label.  Accordingly, brand owners should be reminded of the strategic advantage of registering their core character and label elements as trademarks, and to not hesitate in pursuing protection and enforcement of their trade dress in Canada.

The Court’s decision is also notable for being one of the few decided cases in Canada where there has been a finding of liability for depreciation of goodwill of a registered trademark.

7. $12.7 million awarded for circumvention of Technological Protection Measures (TPMs)

On March 1, 2017, the Federal Court released its precedent-setting decision in Nintendo of America Inc v King et al, 2017 FC 246, in which Mark Biernacki and Kevin Siu of Smart & Biggar acted as counsel for Nintendo of America Inc, the successful applicant.

The Court concluded that the respondent’s sale and installation of video game copier devices and console modification chips, which allowed for unauthorized copies of video games to be played on the applicant’s consoles, circumvented the applicant’s Technological Protection Measure (TPM) provisions in the Copyright Act. As a result, the Court awarded the applicant over C$12.7 million in statutory damages. The Court further awarded C$1 million in punitive damages against the corporate respondent, in light of the respondent’s conduct.

While the law on TPM circumvention continues to be developed in Canada, this decision is a strong shot across the bow at would be infringers. More detail on the decision can be found in our March 2, 2017 IP Update.

8. Supreme Court of Canada grants global injunction

The Supreme Court of Canada issued its decision in Google Inc v Equustek Solutions Inc on June 28, 2017 (2017 SCC 34), upholding an injunction requiring a non-party to an infringement action, Google Inc, to remove links to infringing websites from its global search results. 

Despite beginning life as an intellectual property infringement matter, the case evolved into one in which the key issue became the jurisdiction of Canadian courts to issue injunctive relief, on a global scale, against a non-party as a remedy for infringement on the Internet. In finding that Canadian courts did have such power, the Court stated that “The Internet has no borders – its natural habitat is global. The only way to ensure that the interlocutory injunction attained its objective was to have it apply where Google operates – globally.”

The decision signifies a stance taken by Canada’s highest court that our courts have broad jurisdiction to issue injunctions against both parties and non-parties, including with extraterritorial effect. Further discussion of the decision can be found in our June 28, 2017 IP Update.

9. Res judicata inapplicable to domain name proceedings

As reported in our July 26, 2017 IP Update, the Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA) Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (CDRP) issued a pair of decisions confirming that failure to secure a domain name transfer at a first panel hearing does not bar a brand owner from pursuing and succeeding at a second panel hearing.

In these cases, the complainant was unsuccessful in its first attempt to recover a domain name that was confusingly similar to its trademark. The complainant then sought the guidance of Daniel Anthony and Timothy Stevenson of Smart & Biggar’s Domain Names & Internet Law Group, who worked with the complainant to muster evidence of prior use of the complainant’s trademark in Canada, and evidence of bad faith on the part of the registrant. The evidence was decisive, and the complainant successfully recovered the infringing domain name.

The ultimate success of the complainant illustrates that where a brand owner is determined to recover an infringing domain name, failure in the first instance before the CDRP does not necessarily prohibit it from commencing a second proceeding with better evidence in support of its position. Perhaps more importantly, however, it serves to highlight the importance of working with counsel familiar with such proceedings, who understand the evidentiary requirements at play.

10. Looking Ahead - Amendments to Canada’s IP laws

2017 was an active year in terms of foreshadowing a significant overhaul to Canada’s IP legislation across all areas.  Some of the most noteworthy legislative changes and proposed changes include:

  • Amendments to the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations, which came into force on September 21, 2017, brought significant changes to Canada’s pharmaceutical patent linkage litigation. The new regulations replace summary proceedings with a full right of action for determining validity and infringement with a right of appeal to both patentees and generics. More details are available here.
  • Amendments are proposed to Canada’s Trademarks Act to allow Canada’s inclusion to the Madrid Protocol and the Nice Agreement. The Madrid Protocol simplifies the procedure for filing corresponding trademark applications in foreign countries. The Nice Classification provides a standardized classification of goods and services. The amendments are not expected to come into force before early 2019. More details on the proposed changes are available here
  • Amendments are proposed to Canada’s Patent Rules to provide applicants more flexibility in their filings. However, the amendments also reduce the national phase entry deadline from 42 months to 30 months from the priority date and shorten prosecution deadlines. More details are available here.
  • Amendments are proposed to Canada’s Industrial Designs Regulations to allow Canada to join the Hague Agreement. The proposed Regulations provide applicants more flexibility in their industrial design filing strategy over the current regime, but are not expected to come into force before early 2019. More details are available here.

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Smart & Biggar | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Smart & Biggar

Smart & Biggar on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at:

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.