Recent Verdict Strengthens the Growing Need for Websites to Increase Accessibility to Disabled Individuals

by Garvey Schubert Barer

A recent case in federal district court in Florida foreshadows the beginning of an expanded reach of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). As a whole, the Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. Recently, a growing number of lawsuits filed by the Department of Justice (DOJ) and private litigants threatening class action lawsuits serves as a strong caution to businesses operating websites to increase accessibility of those sites to disabled individuals.

Who does Title III apply to?

Title III of the ADA applies to private entities and covers:

(1) places of public accommodation;

(2) commercial facilities; and

(3) examinations and courses related to applications, licensing, certification or credentialing for secondary or postsecondary education, professional, or trade purposes.

A place of public accommodation is defined as a place maintained by a private entity whose operations affect commerce, and that falls within one of twelve enumerated categories (not discussed here).

There are inconsistent interpretations among courts regarding whether private websites are considered places of public accommodation subject to the accessibility requirements of Title III and if so, to what standard they are subject. While more specific criteria for accessibility of websites are expected next year, the DOJ has not yet published any clear regulations on the issue.

The court’s decision in Gil v. Winn-Dixie Stores, Inc. offers insight into the direction that the law may be heading. The plaintiff, a visually impaired individual, alleged that the defendant food store’s website was inaccessible to him. The court undertook to determine if the website was subject to the requirements of the ADA. If the website was a place of public accommodation, the court reasoned that it would be subject to the ADA. Although Winn-Dixie does not offer any products for sale directly through its website, the website does permit customers the opportunity to access digital coupons and refill prescriptions.

Many individuals with auditory, visual, or other related disabilities often use assistive technology to help them operate computers and mobile devices and easily access the same information that is available to users without disabilities. The plaintiff in the Winn-Dixie case used assistive software, but he was still unable to access 90% of the tabs on Winn-Dixie’s website, including information such as store locations and hours.

Ultimately the court determined that since the website is “heavily integrated” with Winn-Dixie’s physical store locations and operates as a gateway to them, the website constituted a place of public accommodation and is subject to the requirements of the ADA. The court determined that the online pharmacy, access to digital coupons, and ability to locate stores and hours were considered “services, privileges, advantages, and accommodations” offered by Winn-Dixie’s physical store locations, and as such, the ADA requires that disabled individuals are provided “full and equal enjoyment” of both the website and the stores.

The court’s decision confirms that websites with any public interaction will be considered a place of public accommodation and thus subject to the ADA. Essentially, if a website interacts with the public, it is likely a place of public accommodation. These interactions may be direct, such as e-commerce sales. As in the Winn-Dixie case they may also be less direct such as access to coupons, information regarding store locations and hours, and access to any other tab or page found on the website containing information about products or services that are associated with the physical store.

What is Required?

The court adopted the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) as the accessibility standard for websites. The WCAG is a set of accessibility guidelines created by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) which is the primary international standards organization for the Internet. It was compiled based on the expert opinions of the W3C staff, member organizations, and interest groups. The consortium is led by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web, and W3C CEO, Jeffrey Jaffe. The court noted that the internet provides the public with information that is easily accessible to viewers at any time. The ADA’s purpose is to ensure disabled users are afforded an opportunity, equal to that of users without disabilities, to access the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations provided on websites.

So How Does a Business with a Website Comply?

There are several steps a business can take to protect itself. The first is to make sure its website is accessible. Acknowledge the potential use of assistive technology by disabled viewers and create websites that are compatible by doing things such as:

  • Adding text equivalents to all non-text content. A mere description of the image is not sufficient, the text must be equivalent to the image by including the same meaningful information that users without disabilities obtain by looking at it;
  • Posting documents in a text-based format such as HTML or RTF in addition to PDF;
  • Allowing viewers to adjust color and font settings in their web browsers;
  • Including text captions describing any videos and other multimedia graphics;
  • Minimizing blinking and flashing. If such features are necessary, allow them to be paused or stopped;
  • Providing an alternative way for disabled viewers to access the information and resources such as a staffed telephone information line;
  • Designing a plan to make content more accessible, posting the plan on an accessible webpage, and providing a phone number or email address encouraging viewers to provide feedback or request further accommodations regarding accessibility;
  • Organizing mandatory web accessibility training to all employees who develop programs, code for, or publish final content to the website on how to conform with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines;
  • Conducting automated accessibility tests of websites;
  • Requiring third-parties who interface with the website to also conform to the WCAG; and
  • Consulting with legal counsel to ensure the website meets the relevant standards.     

Businesses should be aware that these suggestions may be referred to for guidance, but do not encompass the entirety of the accommodations Title III of the ADA may require. It is strongly recommended that businesses operating websites conform with the WCAG in an effort to ensure that disabled individuals receive the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of a website.

What Happens if a Website Does Not Comply?

Businesses should be proactive in bringing their website into compliance despite the current lack of formal regulations. Disabled persons encountering an inaccessible website may retain counsel to send out threatening demand letters to a website operator or file a lawsuit. As one of few decisions on the issue, Gil v. Winn-Dixie Stores, Inc. will serve as persuasive precedent to courts confronted with the issue in the near future.

Websites that fail to comply may find themselves:

  • Receiving a demand letter from an attorney addressing the website’s noncompliance;
  • Defending a lawsuit alleging violations of the ADA; and/or
  • Paying damages, settlements, significant attorney fees and costs.

In addition to protecting against the risk of liability, modifying websites to increase accessibility to disabled viewers potentially expands a business’ market to promote its products or services to new customers who previously could not adequately access information about the business.

This alert was prepared with the assistance of Meghan O’Brien, a legal extern and law student at New York Law School.

Written by:

Garvey Schubert Barer

Garvey Schubert Barer on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
Sign up using*

Already signed up? Log in here

*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
Privacy Policy (Updated: October 8, 2015):

JD Supra provides users with access to its legal industry publishing services (the "Service") through its website (the "Website") as well as through other sources. Our policies with regard to data collection and use of personal information of users of the Service, regardless of the manner in which users access the Service, and visitors to the Website are set forth in this statement ("Policy"). By using the Service, you signify your acceptance of this Policy.

Information Collection and Use by JD Supra

JD Supra collects users' names, companies, titles, e-mail address and industry. JD Supra also tracks the pages that users visit, logs IP addresses and aggregates non-personally identifiable user data and browser type. This data is gathered using cookies and other technologies.

The information and data collected is used to authenticate users and to send notifications relating to the Service, including email alerts to which users have subscribed; to manage the Service and Website, to improve the Service and to customize the user's experience. This information is also provided to the authors of the content to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

JD Supra does not sell, rent or otherwise provide your details to third parties, other than to the authors of the content on JD Supra.

If you prefer not to enable cookies, you may change your browser settings to disable cookies; however, please note that rejecting cookies while visiting the Website may result in certain parts of the Website not operating correctly or as efficiently as if cookies were allowed.

Email Choice/Opt-out

Users who opt in to receive emails may choose to no longer receive e-mail updates and newsletters by selecting the "opt-out of future email" option in the email they receive from JD Supra or in their JD Supra account management screen.


JD Supra takes reasonable precautions to insure that user information is kept private. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. However, please note that no method of transmitting or storing data is completely secure and we cannot guarantee the security of user information. Unauthorized entry or use, hardware or software failure, and other factors may compromise the security of user information at any time.

If you have reason to believe that your interaction with us is no longer secure, you must immediately notify us of the problem by contacting us at In the unlikely event that we believe that the security of your user information in our possession or control may have been compromised, we may seek to notify you of that development and, if so, will endeavor to do so as promptly as practicable under the circumstances.

Sharing and Disclosure of Information JD Supra Collects

Except as otherwise described in this privacy statement, JD Supra will not disclose personal information to any third party unless we believe that disclosure is necessary to: (1) comply with applicable laws; (2) respond to governmental inquiries or requests; (3) comply with valid legal process; (4) protect the rights, privacy, safety or property of JD Supra, users of the Service, Website visitors or the public; (5) permit us to pursue available remedies or limit the damages that we may sustain; and (6) enforce our Terms & Conditions of Use.

In the event there is a change in the corporate structure of JD Supra such as, but not limited to, merger, consolidation, sale, liquidation or transfer of substantial assets, JD Supra may, in its sole discretion, transfer, sell or assign information collected on and through the Service to one or more affiliated or unaffiliated third parties.

Links to Other Websites

This Website and the Service may contain links to other websites. The operator of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using the Service through the Website and link to another site, you will leave the Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We shall have no responsibility or liability for your visitation to, and the data collection and use practices of, such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of this Website and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our privacy policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use the Service or Website following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes. If you do not agree with the terms of this Policy, as it may be amended from time to time, in whole or part, please do not continue using the Service or the Website.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this privacy statement, the practices of this site, your dealings with this Web site, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at:

- hide
*With LinkedIn, you don't need to create a separate login to manage your free JD Supra account, and we can make suggestions based on your needs and interests. We will not post anything on LinkedIn in your name. Or, sign up using your email address.