WPI State of the States – What did the Voters Decide?


The November mid-term elections resulted in some significant power shifts at the state level. Six states (Colorado, Illinois, Maine, Nevada, New Mexico, and New York) that had been politically divided now enjoy a Democratic "trifecta" – meaning the state house, senate, and governor are all affiliated with the same party.1 Alaska, meanwhile, whose current governor is an Independent, will have a Republican governor in 2019, making that state solidly red. Four states (Kansas, Michigan, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin) in which the Republican Party had enjoyed a legislative trifecta, are now politically divided.

What does this breakdown mean for employment law? Those states with complete one-party control will be in a better position to enact legislation favored by the controlling party. In 2019, Democratic-controlled states could be more inclined to pass bills mandating paid leave, banning arbitration agreements of sexual harassment complaints, and establishing predictive scheduling requirements, for example. Solidly Republican jurisdictions may favor bills that seek to curb the proliferation of local laws, among others. Politically divided jurisdictions may advance only those measures that enjoy bipartisan support.

This month's State of the States will provide an overview of select voter-approved state and local ballot initiatives that affect employment, and discuss other legislative efforts that made headway in November.

Successful Ballot Measures

While bills to increase the state minimum wage in Arkansas and Missouri failed to advance in 2018, advocates of a higher hourly wage took the issue straight to the voters on November 6. In Arkansas, a ballot measure to boost the hourly minimum wage from $8.50 to $9.25 per hour was approved. Similarly, voters in Missouri agreed to a new $8.60 minimum, up from the current rate of $7.85. Both increases are set to take effect on January 1, 2019.

Legalizing various uses of marijuana was once again a popular election topic. Voters in Michigan approved a measure to legalize the recreational use of marijuana, while Missouri and Utah voters approved proposals to allow marijuana for medicinal purposes.2

Massachusetts voters approved a referendum to uphold Massachusetts SB 2407, which prohibits discrimination based on gender identity in places of public accommodation.

At the local level, voters in Oakland, California approved ballot Measure Z, the "Oakland Minimum Wage Charter Amendment."3 Among other changes, the measure imposes new minimum wages and employment standards for some hotel workers. Specifically, starting July 1, 2019, covered hotel employers must pay employees who receive health benefits from their employer at least $15.00 per hour, and employees who do not receive employer-provided health benefits at least $20.00 per hour. Measure Z also requires covered employers to provide their staff with panic buttons, and restricts the hours, amount of work, and type of work employees must perform. The ballot measure also authorizes the City of Oakland to administratively enforce its employment standards through investigations and penalties, and to create a Department of Workplace and Employment Standards (DWES) to carry out enforcement activities.

Legislative Activities

While most state legislatures will not reconvene until early 2019, many city governments remain active. And some eager state lawmakers have already pre-filed bills to formally introduce in January.


A handful of local jurisdictions are attempting to beef up their nondiscrimination laws. The city council in Beachwood, Ohio passed a measure making it unlawful to discriminate against any person on the basis of race, color, religion, military status, national origin, disability, age, ancestry, sex, sexual orientation or gender identity.4 Similarly, Prairie Village, Kansas approved a non-discrimination ordinance that would apply to gender and sexual orientation.5

By contrast, the City of Laredo, Texas tabled consideration of a similar ordinance that would have extended anti-discrimination protections on the basis of gender identity and sexual orientation.

In New York City, a proposed ordinance would require every nightlife establishment with five or more employees to provide annual training to employees regarding harassment among patrons, in addition to harassment training required by the state and city.6 Given the momentum of the #MeToo movement, it is anticipated that bills and ordinances requiring employers to provide some form of sexual harassment training will continue to be introduced in state and city legislatures in the coming year.

Protected Time Off and Accommodations

Some newly enacted paid time off policies are either being re-tooled or may never see the light of day.

In September, the Michigan legislature adopted as law a proposed ballot measure, the Michigan Earned Sick Time Act, which will entitle employees in the state to accrue and use paid sick leave.7 As expected, lawmakers are already considering proposals to amend it. Senate Bill 1175, introduced on November 8 and passed by the state senate 20 days later, significantly scales back the paid leave provisions. Among other changes, the bill seeks to reduce from 72 to 36 the number of paid leave hours an employee could use per year; remove the current law's rebuttable presumption that an employer is violating the law if it takes adverse action against an employee within 90 days of that employee's filing a complaint related to the paid leave benefit or opposing a policy or practice that the paid leave law prohibits; shorten from three years to one year the amount of time an employer must maintain records of hours worked and earned sick time; restrict the uses for paid leave; and limit who is considered a "family member" for whom the employee could take sick leave.

In Texas, a member of the state's lower legislative chamber has pre-filed a bill that would essentially prohibit any municipality from adopting or enforcing an ordinance, rule, or regulation that requires employers to provide paid sick leave to employees. The likely impetus for this bill is the adoption of local paid leave ordinances in the cities of Austin and San Antonio, even though both ordinances have a slim chance of ever being implemented. Notably, on November 16, 2018, the Texas Third Court of Appeals effectively killed Austin's ordinance from ever taking effect,8 while the nearly identical San Antonio ordinance, set to go into effect on August 1, 2019, is expected to suffer a similar fate.

Similarly, an Albuquerque, New Mexico proposed ordinance that would have required employers to provide an hour of paid sick leave to their employees for every 40 hours worked, has effectively been abandoned. The city council's Finance and Government Operations Committee failed to vote it out of committee, ending its chances for advancing this year.9

In other protected time off news, on November 17, 2018, portions of the New York City Administrative Code were amended to require employers in New York City with four or more employees to: (1) provide designated lactation room(s) for employees; and (2) implement a lactation room accommodation policy.10 The amendments, which expand upon existing protections for lactating employees, will take effect on March 18, 2019.

Along similar lines, legislation introduced in New Jersey would amend the state's lactation accommodation law to require employers to provide lactating employees with a modified work schedule and a room other than a restroom for expressing milk.

Right to Work

In January 2017, Kentucky enacted a right-to-work law, making it the 27th state in the nation and the last state in the South to adopt such a measure.11 Following a legal challenge, the law was upheld as constitutional by the Kentucky Supreme Court on November 15, 2018.12


Although ballot initiatives are common vehicles for introducing laws legalizing recreational and medical uses of marijuana, state legislators continue to push bills to achieve the same end. In New Jersey, a package of marijuana-related bills advanced in late November, although their fate this year is unclear. One bill (SB 2703, AB 4497), which would legalize marijuana for recreational use, has cleared house and senate committees. Another (SB 10, AB 10) would prohibit employers from taking adverse actions against any employee who is a qualified registered patient using medical marijuana.  As with all such laws, the fact that marijuana remains an unlawful controlled substance under federal law raises interesting questions as to how federal and state laws may interact here.

Independent Contractor Analysis

New regulations proposed in Illinois would clarify the factors to be considered in determining whether an individual is an employee or an independent contractor under the state wage and hour laws. Under the current regulation, the Director of the Illinois Department of Labor considers the following factors as significant in making this assessment: (a) the degree of control the alleged employer exercised over the individual; (b) the extent to which the services rendered by the individual are an integral part of the alleged employer's business; (c) the extent of the relative investments of the individual and alleged employer; (d) the degree to which the individual's opportunity for profit and loss is determined by the alleged employer; (e) the permanency of the relationship; and (f) the skill required in the claimed independent operation. The proposed regulations flesh out each of these factors.

Salary History

Even though the year is winding down, localities are still introducing proposals to limit an employer's ability to inquire about an applicant's salary history. In Cincinnati, Ohio, for example, a member of the city council has introduced an ordinance that would ban businesses from making such inquiries.13

Suffolk County, New York is the latest jurisdiction to approve a law restricting salary history inquiries. Approved on November 30, 2018, Resolution No. 1856-2018 amends the county code to make it unlawful for any employer to ask job applicants or their former employers about their wage or salary history. This limitation applies to written and verbal inquiries, as well as public record searches. The resolution also makes it unlawful for employers to rely on salary history information in determining the applicant's compensation at any stage in the employment process.

Relatedly, a draft bill in Wyoming for consideration in 2019 would prevent employers from banning compensation discussions. The bill would also prohibit wage nondisclosure agreements as a condition of employment, and prevent employers from taking adverse actions against employees who disclose their wages or inquire about others' pay.

Meanwhile, Oregon issued final rules implementing the Oregon Equal Pay Act of 2017.14 This law includes restrictions on salary history inquiries, expands existing remedies available to employees, and provides a safe harbor for employers that have voluntarily assessed their pay practices to identify and eliminate discriminatory pay practices.15 The final rules define a number of key concepts in this law, including what constitutes "work of comparable character," bona fide factors that may be considered in paying employees performing work of comparable character at different compensation levels, and determining benefits as part of compensation. The regulations also clarify that an "unsolicited disclosure" of an applicant's compensation will not be considered a violation of the law so long as the employer does not consider the information in determining his or her suitability for the job.

Minimum Wage

On November 14, 2018, the Saint Paul City Council passed, and Mayor Melvin Carter signed into law, an ordinance that will raise the minimum wage in Saint Paul, Minnesota to $15 an hour starting as early as 2022 for large businesses operating within city limits.16 For more information on other wage and hour-related updates, see this month's edition of WPI Wage Watch.17

What's Next?

December is expected to be the quiet before the legislative storm that is expected once state legislatures reconvene in 2019. We will continue to monitor trends and other legislative developments in the new year.



1 States that already had, and continue to have, Democratic trifectas following the mid-term elections include: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Washington.

2 For more information on these successful ballot initiatives, see Nancy Delogu and Betsy Cammarata, Voters in Michigan, Missouri and Utah Expand Access to Marijuana, Littler Insight (Nov. 12, 2018).

5 Ariel Rothfield, Prairie Village passes non-discrimination ordinance, KSHB Kansas City (Nov. 19, 2018).

6 See Daniel Gomez-Sanchez, Eli Z. Freedberg, and Devjani H. Mishra, NYC Council Proposes Additional Harassment Training Requirement for "Nightlife Establishments" and Their Employees, Littler ASAP (Nov. 14, 2018).

7 See Michael Chichester, Jr., Anton Dirnberger, and Sebastian Chilco, From Ballots to Bills: Michigan Adopts Paid Sick and Safe Time Law and Raises the Minimum Wage, Littler Insight (Sept. 11, 2018).

8 See Melissa J. Ackie, Austin, Texas Earned Sick Time Ordinance on Life Support, Littler ASAP (Nov. 19, 2018).

9 See Steve Knight, ABQ sick leave bill taken off table, for now, Albuquerque Journal (Nov. 26, 2018).

10 See Emily Haigh and Devjani H. Mishra, New York City Will Require Employers to Provide Greater Workplace Accommodations for Lactating Employees, Littler ASAP (Nov. 19, 2018).

11 See LaToi D. Mayo, Kentucky Enacts Right-to-Work Law, Littler ASAP (Jan. 10, 2018).

12 Zuckerman v. Bevin, 2018-CA-000289-MR (Ky. Nov. 15, 2018).

13 Chris Wetterich, Businesses would be banned from asking for salary history under proposed Cincinnati ordinance, Cincinnati Business Courier (Nov. 9, 2018).

15 See Cody Emily Schvaneveldt, Oregon Enacts New Equal Pay Law that Includes Salary History Inquiry Restrictions, Littler ASAP (June 1, 2017).

16 See Joe Weiner, Twins Once More: Saint Paul Passes $15 Minimum Wage Ordinance, Littler ASAP (Nov. 16, 2018).

17 Libby Henninger, Sebastian Chilco, and Corinn Jackson, WPI Wage Watch: Minimum Wage, Tip, & Overtime Developments (November Edition), WPI Report (Nov. 30, 2018).


Written by:


Littler on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

Related Case Law

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.