La Cámara de Diputados de México aprueba la enmienda de la Ley Federal del Trabajo

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IMPORTANTE:

  • La Cámara de Diputados aprobó la reforma a la Ley Federal del Trabajo para regular las Enmiendas Constitucionales realizadas a los Artículos 103 y 123, vigentes desde el 24 de febrero de 2017.
  • El objetivo es modernizar el sistema de justicia laboral en México y cumplir con el Acuerdo 98 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT), así como con el Anexo 23 del Tratado México, Estados Unidos y Canadá (T-MEC).

Read in English: Mexico's House of Deputies Approves Amendment of Federal Labor Law

El día 11 de abril de 2019 la Cámara de Diputados aprobó la reforma a la Ley Federal del Trabajo (LFT) que tiene como objeto regular la Reforma Constitucional a los artículos 107 y 123 promulgada el 24 de febrero de 2017, cumplir con lo establecido en el recientemente ratificado Convenio 98 de la Organización Internacional de Trabajo (OIT), así como con el Anexo 23 del Tratado México, Estados Unidos y Canadá (T-MEC) que tiene como compromiso la modernización del sistema de justicia laboral vigente.

Se especula que para el 19 de abril de 2019 lo apruebe la Cámara de senadores para que publicado el próximo 1 de mayo 2019.

Los aspectos más relevantes, son los siguientes:

Tercerización de prestación de servicios y Libertad Sindical

1. La regularización de la tercerización de prestación de servicios de personal (outsourcing)

El dictamen aprobado no contempla modificaciones a los artículos que regulan el outsourcing, únicamente adicionan en el artículo 5 de la LFT que establece que será nulo la estipulación que establezca a) encubrir una relación laboral con actos jurídicos simulados para evitar el cumplimiento de obligaciones laborales y/o de seguridad social y b) registrar a un trabajador con un salario menor al que realmente recibe.

2. Democracia sindical y libertad de negociación colectiva

  • a) Reconocimiento de principios laborales internacionales: Se reconoce explícitamente el derecho de libertad sindical, de libre sindicación y la protección contra actos de injerencia.
  • b) Elección de directivas sindicales: Se establece que los procedimientos de elección de directivas y secciones sindicales deberán salvaguardar el ejercicio del voto personal, libre y secreto.
  • c) Registro de sindicatos: Se establece que para el registro de un sindicato, se deberán presentar ante el Centro Federal de Conciliación y Registro Laboral los documentos que acrediten que el sindicato existe y que cuenta con un padrón actualizado de miembros.

    Asimismo, la directiva de los sindicatos tendrá la obligación de rendir cuentas a sus agremiados por lo menos cada seis meses, respecto de los ingresos, egresos así como de la administración del patrimonio sindical.

    Se plantea la creación de un Centro Federal de Conciliación y Registro Laboral, cuyas actividades principales además de la conciliación laboral, serán el registro de organizaciones sindicales y contratos colectivos de trabajo.
  • d) Representatividad en la firma de contratos colectivos de trabajo.

    Adicionan la “Constancia de Representatividad” que expedirá el Centro Federal de Conciliación y Registro Laboral como parte de los requisitos para el registro o de un contrato colectivo y como requisito para el emplazamiento a huelga por firma de contrato, que en ambos casos el Sindicato, deberá obtener con el fin de cumplir los principios de representatividad. Esta constancia tendrá una vigencia de seis meses.
  • e) Establece mecanismos de consulta a los trabajadores para la aprobación de contratos colectivos de trabajo y convenios de revisión negociados, esto es que se propone introducir que cualquier solicitud de registro de un contrato inicial o un convenio de revisión deba contar previamente con la aprobación del acuerdo colectivo por la mayoría de los trabajadores cubiertos por el mismo a través del voto personal, libre y secreto.
  • f) Todos los contratos colectivos deberán revisarse dentro de los 4 años siguientes a la entrada en vigor de la legislación secundaria y los trabajadores deberán aprobar dichas revisiones conforme al procedimiento establecido en el inciso anterior.
  • g) La prueba del recuento. Si después de consultar a los trabajadores se produce la pérdida de la titularidad del contrato colectivo, para demandar la titularidad de éste, el sindicato deberá promover el procedimiento especial colectivo que establezca la ley.

    Tratándose de violaciones a derechos fundamentales en materia colectiva que atenten contra la libertad de sucesión, libertad sindical o derecho de negociación o cuando se impugnen procedimientos de elección de las directivas sindicales, no será necesario acudir a la conciliación prejudicial ni exhibir la constancia de representatividad.
  • h) Proponen prohibir a los sindicatos participar en esquemas de evasión de contribuciones o incumplimiento de obligaciones patronales respecto a los trabajadores, ejercer actos de violencia o participar en actos de simulación asumiendo el carácter de patrón y obstaculizar la participación de los trabajadores en los procedimientos de elección de sus directivas sindicales.

Centro Federal de Conciliación y Registro Laboral

Tal y como se aprobó en la reforma Constitucional al artículo 123, se prevé la creación de un organismo público descentralizado del Gobierno Federal denominado Centro Federal de Conciliación y Registro Laboral, con autonomía operativa y cuyas actividades principales serán:

1. Instancia de Conciliación Prejudicial. Realizar la función de conciliación de los conflictos laborales, cuando estos sean de competencia federal. Este proceso de conciliación será un requisito previo para presentar una demanda ante los Tribunales Laborales, ya que se deberá de adjuntar la constancia que acredite la conclusión del proceso de conciliación emitida por dicho Centro a la demanda inicial, con el fin de acreditar el cumplimiento a este requisito, salvo los casos de excepción que determina el proyecto de ley.

2. Llevará el registro de todos los contratos colectivos de trabajo y reglamentos interiores de trabajo de las organizaciones sindicales.

3. Establecer el Servicio Profesional de Carrera.

4. Establecer planes de capacitación y desarrollo profesional.

Asimismo, se crearán Centros Locales de Conciliación, que dependerán del Gobierno estatal de cada Estado, cuyo objeto principal será llevar a cabo la función conciliadora en los conflictos laborales que no sean de competencia federal.

Tribunales Laborales

Se establecen los lineamientos de operación de los nuevos Tribunales Laborales, que reemplazarán a las Juntas de Conciliación y Arbitraje los cuales dependerán del Poder Judicial de la Federación tratándose de los tribunales de competencia federal y de los poderes judiciales locales en los demás casos.

Procedimiento Ordinario Laboral

Así mismo, esta reforma prevé un cambio sustancial en el procedimiento ordinario laboral, destacando los siguientes puntos:

1. El Tribunal contará con una plataforma digital para realizar notificaciones por vía electrónica.

2. Se prevé el establecimiento de un sistema de registro voluntario para que los patrones (empresas o personas físicas) cuenten con un buzón electrónico para que les comuniquen cualquier procedimiento en su contra en los que no hayan podido ser emplazados.

3. Los recibos electrónicos de pago que contengan la liga en donde se encuentre el CFDI, harán prueba plena si se verifica en el portal de internet del SAT.

4. Al escrito inicial de demanda se deberá adjuntar: i) Constancia que acredite la conclusión del proceso de conciliación; ii) documentos que acrediten personalidad jurídica; y iii) las pruebas con las que cuente el trabajador.

5. Proponen nuevos términos procesales.

Perspectiva de género y derechos humanos

1. Será de interés social garantizar un ambiente libre de discriminación y violencia.

2. El patrón tendrá la obligación de implementar un protocolo para prevenir la discriminación por razones de género y atención a casos de violencia y acoso sexual.

3. Se prevé la tutela de derechos cuando se reclame la discriminación en el empleo.

Otros aspectos relevantes

1. Se propone adicionar en el contrato individual de trabajo la designación de beneficiarios para el pago de salarios y prestaciones devengadas y no cobradas a la muerte del trabajador.

2. Proponen que los convenios de terminación de la relación de trabajo o liquidación, para ser válido deberá ser ratificado ante los Centros de Conciliación y cuando sea celebrado sin la intervención de la autoridad será susceptible de ser reclamada la nulidad ante el tribunal correspondiente solamente de aquello que contenga renuncia de los derechos de los trabajadores, conservando su validez el resto del clausulado.

3. Adicionan que la falta del aviso de rescisión de la relación de trabajo por si sola presume la separación no justificada, salvo prueba en contrario que acredite que el despido fue justificado.

4. Adicionan el artículo 48 BIS con los supuestos de actuaciones notoriamente improcedentes, realizados por las partes y los servidores públicos.

5. El empleador queda eximido de la obligación de reinstalar al trabajador mediante el pago de las indemnizaciones correspondientes en los supuestos marcados en el artículo 49 de la actual ley y contemplan que por la vía paraprocesal podrán depositar la indemnización correspondiente.

6. Adicionan como obligación de los empleadores:

  • a) entregar a sus trabajadores de manera gratuita un ejemplar impreso del contrato colectivo de trabajo o de su revisión;
  • b) implementar un protocolo para prevenir la discriminación por razones de género;
  • c) fijar y difundir el texto fiel de la convocatoria que les solicite el Centro Federal de Conciliación y Registro Laboral para el desarrollo del procedimiento de consulta al que se refiere el capítulo de Libertad Sindical; y,
  • d) fijar en el centro de trabajo la convocatoria que le solicite el sindicato cuando consulte a los trabajadores el contenido o revisión del contrato colectivo.

7. Los empleadores tienen la obligación de inscribir a los trabajadores del hogar al Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, sin que exista obligación de cubrir la aportación al Instituto del Fondo Nacional de la Vivienda para los Trabajadores (INFONAVIT).

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

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