Spruce Up Survives, But a Successor's First Communication to a Predecessor's Employees is More Critical Than Ever

Littler
Contact

In Paragon Systems, Inc., 364 NLRB No. 75 (2016), the National Labor Relations Board declined the General Counsel’s request to overturn its 42-year-old decision in Spruce Up Corp., 209 NLRB 194, 195 (1974), enfd. per curiam 529 F.2d 516 (4th Cir. 1975).  Spruce Up held that a successor employer that plans to offer employment to its predecessor’s union-represented employees is free to set its own starting terms and conditions of employment unilaterally, provided it does not : (1) actively, or by tacit inference, mislead employees into believing they will be retained without changes in wages, hours or conditions of employment; or (2) fail to clearly announce its intent to establish new employment terms prior to inviting those employees to accept employment. A series of recent Board decisions show that Spruce Up is not likely to be overturned, but that asset purchasers that wish to set their own initial terms and conditions of employment need to pay attention to the timing and substance of their first communication to the predecessor’s employees.

The Legal Landscape

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled long ago that, when a successor employer takes over a predecessor’s unionized operations, the successor is not obligated to adopt the predecessor’s union contract, nor is the successor obligated to keep the predecessor’s terms and conditions of employment in place when the successor starts operations.  NLRB v. Burns Security Services, 406 U.S. 272 (1972).  Instead, the new employer can set its own initial terms and conditions (including new wages and benefits), and then bargain with the predecessor’s union if a majority of the predecessor’s employees choose to accept employment under the successor’s terms.

Burns identified a narrow exception for situations in which it is “perfectly clear” that the successor plans to retain all of the predecessor's employees. In such cases, the Court said there was a duty to “consult” with the union before setting those initial terms and conditions.  In Spruce Up, the Board clarified that, if the successor announces starting terms and conditions that are different from those of the predecessor, then it is not “perfectly clear” that a successor will hire a majority of the prior workforce.  This is true because, even if the successor wants the employees to accept the offer, the employer cannot know that a majority of the workers will do so under conditions that are different from what the predecessor provided. The Board cautioned, however, that an employer would lose this unilateral ability if it communicated an intent to offer its predecessor’s employees jobs in a way that misled the employees or their union to believe there would be no changes or that failed to put them on notice changes would be forthcoming, and later announced new terms and conditions at a point when it was too late for those incumbents to seek other employment opportunities.

Efforts to Overturn Spruce Up

Recently, the Board has issued a number of decisions expanding the type of conduct that constitutes “misleading” employees about whether changes in conditions are going to occur.1  The Board’s decisions have been so expansive that the narrow “perfectly clear” exception noted by the Supreme Court in Burns now threatens to swallow the fundamental principle established in Burns – that successors “ordinarily” are free to set their own initial terms and conditions of operation.

The Board’s General Counsel has sought to go further by stockpiling successor cases over the past few years and asking the Board to overturn Spruce Up. As such, the General Counsel has argued that a successor must consult with the predecessor’s union about starting conditions any time the successor’s conduct shows that the successor “intends” to hire the prior workforce.

There had been recent signals from the Board that the General Counsel’s request to overturn Spruce Up was a bridge too far.  In GVS Properties, L.L.C., 362 NLRB No. 194 (2015), two Board Members held that a city statute (which required successors to retain the predecessor’s employees for 90 days) created an immediate bargaining obligation with the predecessor’s union, but when the dissenting Board Members asserted that the other two Board Members were trying to undermine Spruce Up and the “perfectly clear successor” doctrine, the two Board Members denied they were doing so in “the instant case.”  Then in Nexeo Solutions, L.L.C., 364 NLRB No. 44 (2016), the same two Board Members found it “unnecessary to consider the requests” to overrule Spruce Up because their decision treated the employer as a perfectly clear successor based on their conclusion that the employer did not quickly enough communicate to the predecessor’s employees that the successor’s starting terms of employment would be different from the predecessor’s terms.

Paragon Systems

Paragon Systems, Inc. seemed to provide an excellent opportunity for the General Counsel’s efforts to overturn Spruce Up.  Paragon had taken over a federal contract to provide guard services at a federal building where the predecessor’s work force had union representation.  As a federal contractor, Paragon had a legal obligation under Executive Order 13495 to offer employment to the predecessor’s union-represented employees on a first-refusal basis.  Paragon also had a legal obligation under the Service Contract Act (SCA) to provide the incumbent employees with wage rates and fringe benefit amounts that were at least equal in value to the wage rates and fringe benefit amounts that were paid by the predecessor.  So, while Paragon might set up a variety of starting terms and conditions that were different from those of its predecessor, all guards would be receiving offers of employment at the predecessor’s wage and fringe benefit levels.  The General Counsel argued this meant Paragon was a perfectly clear successor who knew that a majority of the prior workforce would accept employment offers.

In response, Paragon pointed out that its offer letters to the incumbent guards expressly notified those guards that Paragon would be setting its own starting terms and conditions of employment, and the letters set forth some of the ways in which Paragon’s terms would be different from its predecessor.  To avoid any assertion it had misled incumbents about what it planned to do, Paragon had refrained from any pre-offer letter communications with the incumbents, except for a short, posted memo informing guards that Paragon had been awarded the contract and that Paragon would be hosting a job fair to discuss employment.  The memo asked guards to fill out applications at Paragon’s website in advance of the job fair.  The applications would allow Paragon to prepare personalized offer letters and other materials for the job fair.

The administrative law judge (ALJ) found that Paragon’s memo about filling out applications was the equivalent of an offer of employment.  The ALJ agreed with the General Counsel’s assertion that the SCA and Executive Order requirements automatically made Paragon a perfectly clear successor. He also argued at length that Spruce Up was wrongly decided and should be overturned. 

The three Members rejected the ALJ’s conclusions and unanimously found that Paragon’s memo announcing the job fair was not an invitation to accept employment and that Paragon’s status as a federal contractor did not mean Paragon was automatically a perfectly clear successor.  The Members relied on Spruce Up in support of their decision, but declined to throw their full weight behind the case, saying in a footnote:  “[w]e decline to rule on the General Counsel’s request [to overturn Spruce Up] in this case” (emphasis added), holding open the possibility that they could do so in a different set of circumstances.  Realistically, however, the General Counsel’s failure to prevail under such favorable circumstances in Paragon Systems demonstrates that the Board is unlikely to overturn Spruce Up.

What Lessons Should Employers Learn From These Cases?

While the essential principle in Spruce Up appears likely to survive, the case has been significantly weakened and the Board remains receptive to creating as many exceptions as possible to the fundamental legal principle announced in Spruce Up. As such, employers should anticipate that the General Counsel will remain vigilant in looking for flaws in the way successors communicate with the prior workforce, and that the standard for whether an existing employee has been “misled” about initial job terms is likely to be continually rebalanced in favor of the predecessor’s employees. 

If an employer wishes to establish its own terms and conditions of employment following an asset purchase, the critical takeaway from the Board’s recent decisions is that a successor’s FIRST communication of any type to a predecessor’s workforce should clearly and unambiguously inform the predecessor’s employees that:

  1. The successor is not adopting the predecessor’s union contract.
  2. The successor is going to be setting its own initial terms and conditions of employment.
  3. The successor’s initial terms and conditions of employment are going to be substantially different from the terms and conditions that were in place under the predecessor.
  4. No predecessor employee should presume that any particular practice, procedure or term of employment used by the predecessor will continue unchanged under the successor’s leadership and policies.
  5. The predecessor is not authorized to make any statements on the successor’s behalf about what the successor will or will not do in connection with setting initial terms and conditions of employment, and the predecessor’s employees should not rely on any statements or information that they have heard from any source other than the successor. 
  6. If the successor is taking over a federal contract, then the successor should add that the successor will meet its legal obligation by offering nothing lower than the wage rates and base fringe benefit amount paid by its predecessor, but the successor should emphasize:  (a) that the base fringe benefit amount may be provided in a manner different from that of the predecessor; and (b) that continuation of prior wage rates and fringe benefit amounts is not a signal that any other term or condition of employment will remain unchanged.

 

 

​1 Seee.g., Adams & Associates, Inc., 363 NLRB No. 193 (2016) and Creative Vision Resources, LLC, 364 NLRB No. 91 (2016).

 

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Littler | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Littler
Contact
more
less

Littler on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.