News & Analysis as of

Corporations Code

Nevada Favors New York Over Delaware Precedent For SLC Review

by Allen Matkins on

Nevada law endows a board of directors “full control over the affairs of the corporation”. NRS 78.120(1). This control is subject only to such limitations as may be provided by NRS chapter 7, or the articles of...more

This California Court Held That A Limited Partnership Is No Person

by Allen Matkins on

In preceding posts, I commented on the multifarious definitions of “person” in the Securities Act of 1933, the Exchange Act of 1934 and various laws within the California Corporations Code. As noted, the Corporations Code’s...more

Multifarious Meanings of “Person”

by Allen Matkins on

Last Friday, I observed that the definitions of “person” found in the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act are oddly incongruous. The California Corporations Code is similarly inharmonious. Section 18 of the Code,...more

Are Limited Liability Companies “Persons”?

by Allen Matkins on

Limited liability companies did not exist when Congress enacted the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Therefore, it should be no surprise that as originally enacted, these acts did not mention...more

Something Appears To Be Awry With California’s Insider Trading Statute

by Allen Matkins on

I trust that by now most quotidien readers of this blog should be familiar with Corporations Code Section 25402 which declares insider trading to be unlawful. Although the statute has been on the books since the enactment of...more

Scienter In The News Again

by Allen Matkins on

In May, I wrote about Judge Gonzolo P. Curiel’s decision to grant the defendants’ motion to dismiss federal and state securities law claims in Mueller v. San Diego Entm’t Partners, LLC, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 77643 (S.D. Cal....more

“Lead Independent Director” Or “Presiding Director”?

by Allen Matkins on

Neither California nor Nevada require that a corporation have either a “lead independent director” or “presiding director” and yet many corporations state that they have such a position. Why?...more

Bylaws And Supermajority Board Voting Requirements

by Allen Matkins on

Yesterday’s post concerned various provisions that, although not required to be included in the articles of incorporation, must be included if they are to be effective. One of these provisions relates to supermajority voting...more

Putting These Provisions In Bylaws Won’t Be Sufficient

by Allen Matkins on

Section 202 of the California Corporations Code lists those provisions that must be included in a California corporation’s articles of incorporation in order for them the be accepted by the Secretary of State for filing. ...more

Shareholder Derivative Suit Or Derivative Action?

by Allen Matkins on

I have long puzzled over the question of which is correct – “derivative suit” or “derivative action”? Historically, the term “suit” was used for proceedings in equity. California courts have generally regarded shareholder...more

Suing The CEO For Social Activism Is Likely To Be Challenging Under Nevada Law

by Allen Matkins on

Yesterday’s post concerned asked the question whether shareholders can sue CEOs for social activism. The answer is of course, yes. The more interesting question is whether shareholders will win the suit. To answer that...more

A Subsidiary Post

by Allen Matkins on

Not too long ago, I wrote about the Securities and Exchange Commission’s confusing classification of subsidiaries. See The Case Of The Wholly Owned, But Not Totally Held, Subsidiary That May Or May Not Be 100% Owned. Since...more

Negotiating Permits?

by Allen Matkins on

The title of yesterday’s post may have been a bit recondite for some readers as I never directly mentioned negotiating permits in the post. Therefore, today’s post will back up a bit and fill in some of the missing pieces....more

A Permit To Negotiate – Really?

by Allen Matkins on

It is sometimes forgotten that the California Corporate Securities Law of 1968 makes it unlawful to either offer or sell a security in California in an issuer transaction unless that the sale has been qualified or exempt from...more

Must A Broker-Dealer Be Licensed As A Personal Property Broker?

by Allen Matkins on

Is your California securities broker-dealer a licensed personal property broker? Does it need to have such a license to make loans to its customers? Anyone reading California Corporations Code Section 25217(c) would...more

Shares of Foreign Subsidiaries

by Allen Matkins on

I expect that little or no thought is given to the possible application of California’s Corporate Securities Law of 1968 when a corporation incorporates a subsidiary under the laws of a foreign country. However, the issuance...more

Court Declines To Impose Alter Ego Liability On LLC’s President

by Allen Matkins on

In general, the debts, obligations, or other liabilities of a California limited liability company do not become the debts, obligations, or other liabilities of a member or manager solely by reason of the member acting as a...more

California Finders Exemption Regulations Are Now Effective

by Allen Matkins on

The Commissioner of Business Oversight’s final regulations implementing a new exemption for finders from the broker-dealer provisions of the Corporate Securities Law took effect on June 21, 2017. See 10 CCR §§ 260.211.4,...more

California Judge Honors Delaware Forum Selection Bylaw

by Allen Matkins on

In May, I wrote about Judge Peter H. Kirwan’s ruling in Drulias v. 1st Century Bancshares, Inc., (Cal. Super. Ct. Case No. 16-CV-294673, Nov. 18, 2016). As readers may recall, Judge Kirwan declined to approve a disclosure...more

A Field Guide To Distinguishing Directors From Officers

by Allen Matkins on

A colleague who is not a corporate lawyer recently noted that in common parlance directors and officers are often simply lumped together as the “same thing”. He suggested that I devote a post to a primer on the differences...more

California Lags Behind The SEC In Permitting Testing Of The Waters In Regulation A Offerings

by Allen Matkins on

In 2015, the Securities and Exchange Commission adopted amendments to Regulation A and other rules and forms to implement Section 401 of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act. One significant enhancement to...more

Special Considerations in California M&A Deals

by WilmerHale on

In addition to the deal-structuring issues that typically arise in any acquisition, M&A transactions involving a party incorporated or based in California raise a number of special issues and opportunities. Some of these...more

Disclaiming Proper Appointment With The Secretary Of State – “All You Have To Do Is Ask”

by Allen Matkins on

A lot of things in life may upset you. One these might be discovering that you have been improperly appointed as an agent for service of process, director or officer of a California corporation. Corporations Code Section...more

Referring To Extraneous Agreements In The Articles of Incorporation

by Allen Matkins on

I didn’t take note of AB 1535 (Maienschein) when it was introduced earlier this year because I thought it was a “spot” bill. See “See Spot Run“. As introduced, the bill simply added “which may include a reference to a...more

Scienter Requirement May Be A Question Of Timing

by Allen Matkins on

On several occasions, I have written about whether scienter is required under Corporations Code Section 25401. That question surfaced again last week in Judge Gonzolo P. Curiel’s ruling on the defendants’ motion to dismiss...more

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