Equal Protection

The Equal Protection Clause is a section of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution that provides that "no state shall...deny to any citizen within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the... more +
The Equal Protection Clause is a section of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution that provides that "no state shall...deny to any citizen within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Essentially, the Equal Protection Clause provides that the government must treat an individual the same way that it treats other individuals in the same circumstances. The 14th Amendment Equal Protection Clause applies only to state governments, but the requirements of the clause apply to the federal government through the Due Process Clause of the 5th Amendment. less -
News & Analysis as of

Supreme Court Update: Obergefell V. Hodges (14-556)

In a week that saw the Court hold that facial challenges are available under the Fourth Amendment, that disparate-impact claims are available under the Fair Housing Act, and that tax credits are available on Obamacare's...more

Same-Sex Marriage Ruling Will Impact Employers

On Friday, June 26, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges, a landmark decision in which it held all state laws banning same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional. The effect of this decision is...more

The Same-Sex Marriage Ruling: Key Employee Benefits Take-Aways

Last Friday, the Supreme Court of the United States issued its highly-anticipated decision in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges, ruling that all 50 states must license marriages between two people of the same sex and must...more

U.S. Supreme Court Rules that States Must Permit and Recognize Same-Sex Marriage

On June 26th, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges that the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution requires every state to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples. In a 5-4...more

Supreme Court Says Constitution Requires States to License Same-Sex Marriages

In another blockbuster 5-4 ruling authored by Justice Kennedy, in Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___. ____ (2015), the U.S. Supreme Court has held that the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution requires a state to license...more

Supreme Court Ruling on Marriage of Same-Sex Couples Has Employee Benefit Plan Implications

On Friday, the Supreme Court, overturning a Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruling, affirmed that the Constitution requires states to permit same-sex couples to marry and to recognize such marriages legally celebrated...more

The Same-Sex Marriage Ruling: Key Employment Law Take-Aways

On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States answered the two questions it posed in the consolidated same-sex case, Obergefell v. Hodges, No. 14-556 (June 26, 2015). The consolidated case arose from challenges to...more

What the Supreme Court Same-Sex Marriage Ruling Means to Employers

The Supreme Court ruled today that state laws banning same sex marriage are unconstitutional under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. While this holding does not directly implicate employers or their...more

U.S. Supreme Court Recognizes Fundamental Right To Same-Sex Marriage Nationwide: Impact of the Decision on Employers

In a landmark decision, the U.S. Supreme Court recognized a fundamental right for same-sex couples to marry throughout the country. In a 5-4 opinion authored by Justice Anthony Kennedy, the Court held that the Due Process...more

Supreme Court Strikes Down Same-Sex Marriage Bans

In a landmark decision, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment requires states to license marriages between two people of the same sex and to recognize same sex marriages that were validly licensed in...more

Landmark Supreme Court Ruling Legalizing Same-Sex Marriages Nationwide

On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States issued its landmark opinion in Obergefell v. Hodges, holding 5-4 that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marriage. Writing for the majority, Justice...more

BREAKING: Same-Sex Marriage Is The Law Of The Land, SCOTUS Says

The decision in Obergefell v. Hodges, hot off the press, is 103 pages long, but here it is. Some instant analysis: *The due process and Equal Protection clauses of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution compel...more

Illinois Supreme Court Affirms Deed Tax, Illuminates Constitutional Tax Analysis

In the closing days of the recently concluded May term, the Illinois Supreme Court handed down its decision in Marks v. Vanderventer, unanimously upholding the constitutionality of a statewide surcharge on the recording of...more

Of Mice and Manpower: Companies That Lease Employees Cannot Be Self-Insured

In the recent California case of Kimco Staffing Services v. The State of California, the Court of Appeals for the 2nd Appellate District agreed with the lower court that staffing services that provide temporary service...more

Parent's Responsibility to Pay for Child's College Education

In 1993, Pennsylvania passed a law that provided courts the authority to require parents to pay college expenses for their children (23 Pa.C.S. § 4327). In 1995, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, in Curtis v. Kline, held that...more

Transgender Litigant Challenges Exclusion of "Gender Identity Disorder" in Americans with Disabilities Act

The Americans with Disabilities Act, 42 U.S.C. § 12191, et seq. ("ADA"), expressly excludes from its protections individuals whose gender identity disorder is not the result of a physical impairment. The so-called "GID...more

Suit by “Interested,” Neighboring Municipalities to Enforce SEQRA Requirements Does Not “Impose or Implement” a Land Use...

On March 27, 2015, the Southern District of New York granted summary judgment in favor of all defendants in the consolidated action Bernstein v. Wesley Hills, 08-CV-156; 12-CV-8856 (KMK), (the “Wesley Hills” Action). The...more

Supreme Court Update: Alabama Legislative Black Caucus v. Alabama (13-895), Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. (12-1226) And...

We're back with summaries of the two remaining decisions from last week, Alabama Legislative Black Caucus v. Alabama (13-895), on racial gerrymandering in Alabama, and Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. (12-1226),...more

Supreme Court Remands Alabama Voting Rights Case

Last week, in Alabama Legislative Black Caucus v. Alabama, the Supreme Court issued an important opinion in the field of voting rights jurisprudence. The question presented to the Court was whether the Alabama legislature’s...more

Court Finds SEC Administrative Proceeding Constitutional

Section 929P(a) of the Dodd-Frank Act provides that the SEC’s authority in administrative penalty proceedings is “coextensive” with its authority to seek penalties in federal court. The plaintiff in Bebo v SEC argued the...more

Construction Case Law Update - March 2015

Racial discrimination; City Contracting Ordinances; Federal Affirmative Action Compliance in Contracting – Plaintiff-contractor sued the City of Jacksonville, alleging racial discrimination against him and other...more

Supreme Court Decision on Same-Sex Marriage Expected this Summer

The U.S. Supreme Court recently announced it will rule on the legality of same-sex marriage and issue what is expected to be a historic decision with a widespread impact on American culture. Consolidating appeals from four...more

Wiccan Prisoner Seeking 14 Feet of Rope, Combustible Oils, and Candles Loses First Amendment, RLUIPA, and Equal Protection...

Ronald Reiske, a Wiccan prisoner incarcerated in a Connecticut prison, thought it reasonable that the correctional facility provide him with the necessary materials and equipment to practice his Wiccan religion – including 14...more

In Florida, Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage Will Impact Employers

On January 6, Florida became the 36th state to recognize same-sex marriage. This development came as the result of several recent state and federal court decisions finding Florida's ban on same-sex marriage an...more

This Week In Securities Litigation

FCPA enforcement was the focus this first week of the new year. The DOJ brought FCPA and Travel Act charges against an individual alleged to have repeatedly bribed an official of the European Bank of Reconstruction and...more

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