The Employment Law Landscape in 2020

Proskauer - Law and the Workplace

2019 was a busy year for lawmakers across the nation, underscoring the need for employers to remain apprised of all the new laws that will be taking effect in 2020. Below we summarize some of the significant developments employers should be on the lookout for in the new year.

Sexual Harassment and Discrimination Laws

On August 12, 2019, Governor Andrew Cuomo of New York signed into law a bill that, as previously reported, significantly strengthened and expanded workplace anti-discrimination protections in New York State. For additional information regarding the developments already in effect, refer to our previous posts.

In terms of changes still to come, contracts and other agreements entered into on or after January 1, 2020, that prevent the disclosure of information relating to any future claim of discrimination on the basis of any protected characteristic will be unenforceable, unless the provision notifies the individual that it does not prohibit them from speaking with law enforcement, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the New York State Division of Human Rights (“NYSDHR”), a local commission on human rights, or an attorney retained by the individual.   Likewise, effective February 8, 2020, the New York State Human Rights Law will be expanded to include all employers in the state, regardless of size. And, effective August 12, 2020, the statute of limitations for reporting claims of sexual harassment to the NYSDHR will be extended from one to three years.

California Governor Gavin Newsom signed AB 9 into law on October 10, 2019. The law, effective January 1, 2020, will extend the statute of limitations period for employees to file claims of discrimination, harassment, and/or retaliation with the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing (“DFEH”) from one to three years. After receiving a right-to-sue letter from the DFEH, employees will then have one more year to file a civil action in court.

On August 30, 2019, California enacted SB 778. The bill, effective immediately, has extended the time for employers with five or more employees to provide sexual harassment prevention training from January 1, 2020, to January 1, 2021. Covered employers are required to provide two hours of training to supervisory employees and at least one hour of training to all nonsupervisory employees in the state. In addition to training employees by January 1, 2021, employers are required to repeat the training every two years. The training must include, among other things, information regarding federal and state statutory provisions prohibiting sexual harassment and the remedies for such conduct, practical examples aimed at instructing supervisors in the prevention of harassment, and must be inclusive of harassment based on gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation. For additional information on California’s recent legislative activity, please refer to our previous post.

As we previously reported, Connecticut recently expanded employer obligations relating to sexual harassment training and notice requirements. Connecticut employers with three or more employees are now required to provide sexual harassment training to all employees by October 1, 2020. Previously, the law only required employers to provide such training to supervisory employees. The Act also requires employers with at least three employers to post a notice regarding “the illegality of sexual harassment and remedies available to victims of harassment” in a prominent and accessible place.”

Effective October 1, 2020, Oregon’s Workplace Protection Act will prohibit employers from entering into agreements with employees or applicants that contain a nondisclosure provision, non-disparagement provision, or any other provision that has the “purpose or effect of preventing the employee from disclosing or discussing conduct” related to discrimination and harassment on the basis of any protected category under state law, unless it is the complainant’s preference to have such provisions and the complainant is provided at least 7 days to revoke the agreement after signing. For additional information, refer to our original post.

Arbitration Agreements

In October 2019, California enacted AB 51 which prohibits employers from requiring applicants and employees to sign arbitration agreements. As enacted, the prohibition will only apply to arbitration agreements entered into on or after January 1, 2020. Although the statute expressly states that it does not intend to invalidate a written arbitration agreement that is otherwise enforceable under the Federal Arbitration Act (“FAA”), it has already been challenged on grounds of FAA preemption. A similar prohibition passed in New York was successfully challenged on grounds of FAA preemption earlier this year. For additional information, refer to our earlier posts.

Paid Leave Laws

In Nevada, SB 312, which will become effective on January 1, 2020, requires private employers with 50 or more employees in the state to provide certain employees working in the state with up to 40 hours of paid leave per year, to be used for any purpose, including non-medical, personal reasons. Temporary, seasonal, and on-call employees are exempt from coverage under the law. For additional information about the new law, refer to our earlier posts.

As we previously reported, effective January 1, 2020, employers in Duluth, Minnesota with at least five employees nationwide will be required to provide eligible employees with paid leave for their own medical needs, those of a family member, or other covered reasons. The City has issued its final rules and revised its FAQs to provide additional guidance on the Ordinance. Under the Ordinance, eligible employees will accrue one hour of paid sick leave for every 50 hours worked, up to a maximum of 64 hours. Employers may limit paid sick leave usage to 40 hours per year and can elect to frontload at least 40 hours of paid sick leave each year.

Employees in Washington D.C. will become eligible for paid leave benefits under the Universal Paid Leave Amendment Act beginning July 1, 2020. Employees in D.C. will be able to access up to eight weeks of paid leave to bond with a new child, up to six weeks of paid leave to care for a covered family member with a serious health condition, and up to two weeks of paid medical leave to care for the employee’s own serious health condition. For additional information, refer to our earlier posts.

And, finally, Maine was the first state to pass a law requiring employers to provide paid leave for any reason. The Act Authorizing Earned Employee Leave will go into effect on January 1, 2021, and it will require employers with more than 10 employees to provide employees with up to 40 hours of paid personal leave per calendar year. Under the Act, employees will accrue one hour of paid leave for every 40 hours worked. For additional information about the Act, refer to our original post.

Artificial Intelligence and Data Privacy

On August 9, 2019, the Artificial Intelligence Video Interview Act was signed into law in Illinois. The Act requires employers that use videotaped interviews to: (i) notify applicants that their video interviews may be analyzed by AI; (ii) provide applicants information regarding how AI works and what characteristics it will use to evaluate them; and (iii) receive written or oral consent to being evaluated by such AI. Under the Act, employers may only share applicants’ videos with individuals who have the requisite expertise or technological skill to evaluate an applicant’s fitness for a position. Additionally, applicants have the right to request that their videotaped interview—along with any copies of the video—be destroyed within 30 days of the receipt of such request.

New York State recently enacted the Stop Hacks and Improve Electronic Data Security Act (the “SHIELD Act”). The Act imposes new requirements concerning breaches of private information and also imposes additional substantive data security requirements on business that own or lease the private information of New York residents. While the Act’s breach notification provisions took effect on October 23, 2019, its new data security requirements will take effect on March 21, 2020.  For additional information, refer to our Client Alert, available here.

Recreational Marijuana and Pre-Employment Drug Testing

As we previously reported, effective May 10, 2020, New York City’s Fair Chance Act will be amended to prohibit employers from requiring applicants to submit to testing for the presence of marijuana as a condition of employment. The law, however, contains exceptions for those who apply to work in areas involving public safety, such as law enforcement personnel and construction workers.

Nevada followed suit with AB 132, which prohibits Nevada employers from refusing to hire a prospective employee on the basis of a pre-employment drug test that indicated the presence of marijuana. That law, effective January 1, 2020, also provides that where an employee is required to submit to a drug test within the first 30 days of employment, the employee has the right to take another test, at their own expense, to “rebut the results of the initial screening test.” Firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and other employees whose positions could affect the safety of others are exempted from the law.

Illinois became the eleventh state to legalize recreational use of marijuana when Governor Pritzker signed the Cannabis Regulation and Tax Act (“CRTA”), which takes effect on January 1, 2020. Under the CRTA, employers will retain the right to adopt and enforce zero tolerance or drug-free workplace policies. In addition, employers may consider an employee “to be impaired or under the influence of cannabis if the employer has a good faith belief that an employee manifests specific, articulable symptoms while working that decrease or lessen the employee’s performance.” It should be noted, however, that under the Illinois Right to Privacy in the Workplace Act, employers are prohibited from discriminating against an employee because of their use of a “lawful product” outside the workplace. Effective January 1, 2020, marijuana will be considered a lawful product for purposes of the Act. Additionally, employees must be provided a “reasonable opportunity to contest” the basis of an employer’s “good faith belief” of their impairment due to marijuana. For additional information, refer to our original post.

Salary History Inquiries

Effective January 6, 2020, employers in New York State will be prohibited from relying on the wage or salary history of an applicant in determining whether to make an offer of employment or in determining wages. Additionally, employers will be prohibited from seeking an applicant or current employee’s salary or wage history from the applicant, current employee, or their current or former employer. For additional information on the new law’s requirements, please refer to our previous post.

New Jersey also enacted its own salary history inquiry ban. Effective January 1, 2020, it will be an unlawful employment practice for an employer to: (1) screen a job applicant based on the applicant’s salary history, including, but not limited to, the applicant’s prior wages, salaries or benefits; or (2) to require that the applicant’s salary history satisfy any minimum or maximum criteria. An employer may, however, consider salary history in determining salary, benefits, and other compensation for an applicant and may verify the applicant’s salary history where the applicant “voluntarily, without employer prompting or coercion” provides the employer such information. For additional information regarding these new requirements, please refer to our original post.

Effective March 13, 2020, employers in Cincinnati with 15 or more employees located within the City will be prohibited from inquiring about or relying on an applicant’s prior salary history in determining starting salary. The Prohibited Salary History Inquiry and Use Ordinance prohibits employers from: (i) inquiring about an applicant’s salary history or requesting reports or other information to determine or verify salary history; (ii) screening job applicants based on their current or prior compensation or salary history; (iii) relying on salary history in negotiating an employment contract, determining salary or compensation, and deciding to offer employment; or (iv) refusing to hire, retaliating, or disfavoring an applicant who chooses not to disclose their salary history. For additional information on the new law, please refer to our previous post.

Likewise, many municipalities have enacted their own bans on salary history inquiries, including Kansas City, Missouri, and Toledo, Ohio.

Supreme Court Docket

The Supreme Court is also poised to decide a very important issue for employers.  On April 22, 2019, the U.S. Supreme Court granted certiorari in three separate cases that raised the question of whether Title VII’s prohibition of harassment on the basis of sex extends to discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Having heard oral arguments on October 8, 2019, the Supreme Court is expected to rule on this issue in 2020.

The Supreme Court is also expected to hear arguments in a pair of cases that will decide the scope of the ministerial exception to claims of discrimination under federal law.  The ministerial exception exempts religious employers from certain discrimination claims on the grounds that courts should not second guess these employers’ decisions as to who ministers their faith.

Given the legal requirements set to go into effect this coming year, employers should review their workplace policies and practices to ensure that they are prepared to comply.

[View source.]

DISCLAIMER: Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Proskauer - Law and the Workplace | Attorney Advertising

Written by:

Proskauer - Law and the Workplace
Contact
more
less

Proskauer - Law and the Workplace on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.