Articles of Incorporation

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Why A Form LLC-1 May Be Only Half Right

Under California’s new Revised Uniform Limited Liability Act, an LLC is formed when the California Secretary of State’s Office files the articles of organization. Cal. Corp. Code § 17702.01(d). Only five items of...more

Applying a Legal Bandaid to Defective Acts: Delaware Law Creates New Procedures to Ratify Defective Corporate Acts

On June 30, 2013, the State of Delaware amended the Delaware General Corporations Law (the “DGCL”) to include two new sections, Section 204 and Section 205 (together, the “Ratification Provisions”). Set to take effect on...more

Delaware Law to Provide for Ratification of Defective Corporate Acts as of April 1, 2014

It is quite common during the course of legal due diligence to discover that a target company has issued more stock than it had legally authorized through its certificate of incorporation. Many companies, particularly...more

What You Need to Know About S Corporations in California

Are you looking to start a new business in California? If so, you may have heard about S corporations. However, contrary to popular belief, an S corporation is not a business structure — it is a tax status. Any standard...more

Use Proper Terminology to Protect Your Personal Assets

Do you have a corporation or an LLC? How often do you use the proper name of your company (as it appears in the records of the Secretary of State)? Do you often shorten your name and omit the “Inc” or “LLC” on your...more

The Aftermath of a Section 355 Transaction

In this article: - Mechanics of Section 355 - Framework for analysis - Deviation from asserted corporate business purpose - Post-spin events involving Distributing or Controlled assets -...more

A Summary of the New California LLC Law

Effective January 1, 2014, the existing limited liability company (LLC) statute in California (the “Old Act”) will be replaced by the California Revised Uniform Limited Liability Company Act (RULLCA). Actions taken by...more

Where Exactly Is It Written That Shareholders Aren’t Liable For Corporate Debts?

Recently, UCLA Law School Professor Stephen Bainbridge took notice of Section 6.22(b) of the Model Business Corporation Act and asked what might lead a corporation to waive the limited liability of shareholders in its...more

Religious Institutions Update: October 2013

The legitimacy of political speech from the pulpit is much debated. Some contend that religious institutions should be silent, because of separation of church and state or the inaccessibility of divine inspiration to...more

In This Church Versus State Battle, The State Prevailed

Borrowing a bon mot from the riding arena, there are two kinds of California corporate lawyers, those who have had a filing rejected by the Secretary of State’s office and those that will. As almost every corporate lawyer in...more

Are there fiduciary duties between members in an Arizona LLC??

In 1992, the Arizona legislature enacted the Arizona Limited Liability Company Act. Since that time the LLC has become the entity of choice for many individuals, businesses, partners and investors. While there obviously are...more

Delaware Corporation Law Statute Amended to Provide for Ratification and Validation of Defective Corporate Acts

As part of recent amendments to the Delaware General Corporations Law (DGCL), two new sections were added to the DGCL to facilitate the ratification of so-called “defective corporate acts” that would otherwise be invalid due...more

The General Corporation Law Is “English Only”

In China’s Hunan province, a written syllabic script was created, used and understood only by women. This script is called NüShu (??), meaning women’s book. As far as I know, NüShu is the only exclusively gender based...more

Insight on Estate Planning - February/March 2013: Strong governance enhances a family business’s value

Too often, family members view their business as a source of wealth without making sure that the company is managed by those best suited for the job. Good governance — carefully documented in writing — can help ensure a...more

Directors May Be Invested With Super Powers In Nevada But Not California

Directors With Super Powers - Sometimes investors would like to endow one or more directors with greater voting powers. This is possible with a Nevada corporation by virtue of NRS 78.330(3) which provides “ The articles...more

Are Charter Indemnification Provisions Contracts?

Public companies typically include provisions in their articles and bylaws that mandate indemnification of directors and officers. Often, these provisions include a statement to the effect that the rights to indemnification...more

Does The Authorization Or Issuance Of A New Class Of Stock Require Qualification?

Corporations often amend their articles of incorporation to create one or more new classes of securities. These newly created classes often have priority over the previously issued and outstanding shares. Does the amendment...more

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