Equal Protection

The Equal Protection Clause is a section of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution that provides that "no state shall...deny to any citizen within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the... more +
The Equal Protection Clause is a section of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution that provides that "no state shall...deny to any citizen within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Essentially, the Equal Protection Clause provides that the government must treat an individual the same way that it treats other individuals in the same circumstances. The 14th Amendment Equal Protection Clause applies only to state governments, but the requirements of the clause apply to the federal government through the Due Process Clause of the 5th Amendment. less -
News & Analysis as of

Vergara v. California: Part Two: Is Tenure in Connecticut At Risk?

As discussed in a prior post, the recent decision in the case of Vergara v. State of California, et al., will, if upheld on appeal, eviscerate California’s public school teacher tenure law. Given that 46 states have some...more

Judge Strikes Down California Teacher Tenure Laws as Unconstitutional - Business-as-usual for school districts while ruling is...

California teacher tenure, firing and layoff laws violate the state constitution, a judge has ruled in a closely watched case that may have significant ramifications for school districts, education departments and lawmakers....more

Vergara v. California: Its Real Meaning

The media has missed the fact that Vergara is not primarily a case about tenure....more

Impact of the 'Students First' Decision on Non-Teacher Employees of School Districts

Judge Rolf Treu’s decision in the Students First case is effectively an indictment of the termination process of all California public school employees, not just teachers....more

Vergara v. State of California Exposes Constitutional Flaws In Public Teacher Tenure Laws

A Los Angeles County Superior Court Judge ruled Tuesday in Vergara v. State of California that teacher tenure laws in California are unconstitutional because they deprive students of their right to an education under the...more

Are Teacher Tenure and Seniority Really Unconstitutional?

If upheld on appeal, the trial court decision in Vergara v. State of California will make it easier for California school districts to keep new teachers in "at will" probationary status longer, to fire tenured teachers, and...more

Vergara v. California, and the Attenuation of Tenure, Part One: The Decision

In a landmark, June 10, 2014 decision that could set off a wave of similar litigation across the country, a California Superior Court judge ruled in the case of Vergara v. State of California, et al. that a number of...more

California Court Finds Teacher Tenure, Layoff, and Dismissal Laws Unconstitutional

School leaders across the country are buzzing about a California Superior Court’s recent tentative ruling that the state’s teacher tenure, dismissal, and layoff laws violate the equal protection clause of the California...more

Religious Institutions Update - Lex Est Sanctio Sancta

"Church plans" are pension plans (including defined benefit or defined contribution plans) exempt (without an irrevocable election) from many of the legal requirements of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)...more

U.S. Judge Strikes Down Same-Sex Marriage Ban in Pennsylvania

Today, a U.S. District Court in Pennsylvania nullified Pennsylvania’s Marriage Laws, holding that they violate the due process and equal protection clauses of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. If the ruling stands...more

Voter ID Law Strike Down A Victory For Justice

When a federal judge ruled that a voter ID law citing it violated the U.S. Constitution’s guarantee of equal protection, they upheld the rights of all in the face of political motives. Those who support such laws do not...more

Oklahoma Government Bodies May Not Consider Race, Sex, Ethnicity Or National Origin In Employment, Contracting, Or School...

In 2003, despite the Constitutional prohibition on racial discrimination, the U.S. Supreme Court in Grutter v. Bollinger permitted the University of Michigan to consider applicants’ race to ensure a diverse student body. In...more

Supreme Court Strikes Down Affirmative Action In Public Universities Again

On April 22, 2014, in Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action et al. (No. 12–682), the Supreme Court upheld a Michigan law that bans public colleges and universities, community colleges and school districts from...more

Florida Supreme Court Strikes Down Wrongful Death Non-Economic Damages Cap for Med Mal Cases

On March 13, 2014, the Florida Supreme Court, in a 5-2 ruling, issued its long-awaited opinion following review of the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeal’s decision in Estate of McCall v. United States, 642 F.3d 944 (11th Cir....more

Florida Supreme Court’s Decision in McCall v. U.S:

- Determined that the statutory caps on wrongful death non-economic damages (i.e., mental pain and suffering) provided in Section 766.118, Florida Statutes were unconstitutional because they violated the right to equal...more

Texas Ban on Same-Sex Marriage Determined Unconstitutional

The State of Texas is the latest jurisdiction under scrutiny for its ban on same-sex marriage. On Wednesday, February 26, 2014, U.S. District Judge Orlando Garcia ruled that the state law banning same-sex marriage results in...more

Federal Court Rules that Virginia's Laws Barring Same-Sex Marriage are Unconstitutional

On February 13, 2014, in Bostic v. Rainey, Judge Arenda L. Wright Allen of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia ruled that any Virginia laws banning same-sex marriage or prohibiting recognition of...more

Supreme Court Hears Second Affirmative Action Case This Year

On October 15, only four months after the United States Supreme Court heard arguments regarding an affirmative action program for the University of Texas, the Supreme Court heard oral argument in Schuette v. Coalition to...more

IRS Provides Some Guidance on Federal Tax Matters for Same-Sex Marriage

Earlier this year, in the case of U.S. v. Windsor, the US Supreme Court struck down Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Under Section 3 of DOMA, the definitions of "marriage" and "spouse" had been limited to a...more

Federal Tax Law Changes and Opportunities for Same-Sex Married Couples

What you need to know: As the result of the Supreme Court’s recent decision in United States v. Windsor and a subsequent ruling by the IRS, same-sex couples who are legally married in a jurisdiction that recognizes...more

Supreme Court strikes down Defense of Marriage Act: What are the changes for employers?

On June 26, 2013, the United States Supreme Court held that Section 3 the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which prevented the federal government from recognizing state-granted same-sex marriages, was unconstitutional because...more

Maryland Failed To Desegregate Higher Education System, District Court Rules

A U.S. District Court judge ruled recently that the State of Maryland and the Maryland Higher Education Commission failed to desegregate the State’s system of higher education as required by Title VI of the Civil Rights Act...more

The Supreme Court’s 2013-2014 Term

The Supreme Court’s 2013-2014 term opened yesterday. In this term, the Court will hear and decide a number of cases affecting employers, including two key cases focusing on labor-management relations. ...more

New CRS Report: Banning the Use of Racial Preferences in Higher Education

An interesting new report from the Congressional Research Service reviews Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, a case heading to the Supreme Court this upcoming 2013-2014 Term that will consider “whether it is...more

Franczek Radelet Attorneys Prepare NSBA Friend Of The Court Brief In U. S. Supreme Court Case

On August 30, 2013, the National School Boards Association filed an amicus brief prepared by Franczek Radelet attorneys in the U.S. Supreme Court. The “friend of the court” brief addresses the significant detrimental impacts...more

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