Equal Protection

The Equal Protection Clause is a section of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution that provides that "no state shall...deny to any citizen within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the... more +
The Equal Protection Clause is a section of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution that provides that "no state shall...deny to any citizen within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Essentially, the Equal Protection Clause provides that the government must treat an individual the same way that it treats other individuals in the same circumstances. The 14th Amendment Equal Protection Clause applies only to state governments, but the requirements of the clause apply to the federal government through the Due Process Clause of the 5th Amendment. less -
News & Analysis as of

Texas Ban on Same-Sex Marriage Determined Unconstitutional

The State of Texas is the latest jurisdiction under scrutiny for its ban on same-sex marriage. On Wednesday, February 26, 2014, U.S. District Judge Orlando Garcia ruled that the state law banning same-sex marriage results in...more

Federal Court Rules that Virginia's Laws Barring Same-Sex Marriage are Unconstitutional

On February 13, 2014, in Bostic v. Rainey, Judge Arenda L. Wright Allen of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia ruled that any Virginia laws banning same-sex marriage or prohibiting recognition of...more

Supreme Court Hears Second Affirmative Action Case This Year

On October 15, only four months after the United States Supreme Court heard arguments regarding an affirmative action program for the University of Texas, the Supreme Court heard oral argument in Schuette v. Coalition to...more

IRS Provides Some Guidance on Federal Tax Matters for Same-Sex Marriage

Earlier this year, in the case of U.S. v. Windsor, the US Supreme Court struck down Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Under Section 3 of DOMA, the definitions of "marriage" and "spouse" had been limited to a...more

Federal Tax Law Changes and Opportunities for Same-Sex Married Couples

What you need to know: As the result of the Supreme Court’s recent decision in United States v. Windsor and a subsequent ruling by the IRS, same-sex couples who are legally married in a jurisdiction that recognizes...more

Supreme Court strikes down Defense of Marriage Act: What are the changes for employers?

On June 26, 2013, the United States Supreme Court held that Section 3 the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which prevented the federal government from recognizing state-granted same-sex marriages, was unconstitutional because...more

Court of Appeal Upholds Ordinance Regulating Medical Marijuana

A trial court enjoined enforcement of a City of Los Angeles ordinance that regulates the number and geographic distribution of medical marijuana collectives. The court of appeal reversed the trial court’s order finding that...more

Maryland Failed To Desegregate Higher Education System, District Court Rules

A U.S. District Court judge ruled recently that the State of Maryland and the Maryland Higher Education Commission failed to desegregate the State’s system of higher education as required by Title VI of the Civil Rights Act...more

The Supreme Court’s 2013-2014 Term

The Supreme Court’s 2013-2014 term opened yesterday. In this term, the Court will hear and decide a number of cases affecting employers, including two key cases focusing on labor-management relations. ...more

Group Homes Can Move Forward With Their Lawsuit Challenging an Ordinance that has the Practical Effect of Prohibiting Group Homes...

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that the district court erred in dismissing a lawsuit challenging a city ordinance that effectively banned group homes for alcoholics and drug users with an...more

New CRS Report: Banning the Use of Racial Preferences in Higher Education

An interesting new report from the Congressional Research Service reviews Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, a case heading to the Supreme Court this upcoming 2013-2014 Term that will consider “whether it is...more

Franczek Radelet Attorneys Prepare NSBA Friend Of The Court Brief In U. S. Supreme Court Case

On August 30, 2013, the National School Boards Association filed an amicus brief prepared by Franczek Radelet attorneys in the U.S. Supreme Court. The “friend of the court” brief addresses the significant detrimental impacts...more

Florida High Court Upholds Florida's Birth Injury Compensation Plan (NICA)

Last term, the Florida Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of a state plan that provides up to $100,000 to the parents or legal guardians of an infant found to have sustained a birth-related neurological injury. See...more

Citing Windsor, Two Courts Extend Spousal Rights To Same-Sex Couples Who Reside In States That Do Not Recognize Same-Sex Marriage

As we previously reported, the decision overturning the federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) left open many questions, including the impact of the decision on states that do not recognize same-sex marriage. Recent decisions...more

The Honeymoon Is Over: Post-DOMA, Same-Sex Couples Now Spouses For Purposes Of The Securities And Exchange Act Rules

The Supreme Court in U.S. v. Windsor held that the federal Defense of Marriage Act’s (DOMA) section defining marriage as between a man and woman is unconstitutional because it violates the Fifth Amendment’s equal protection...more

Supreme Court Strikes Down Federal Defense Of Marriage Act – Open Questions For Benefit Plan Sponsors

On June 26, 2013, in a 5-4 vote the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the 1993 Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was unconstitutional as a violation of Fifth Amendment guarantees of equal protection and equal liberty....more

Health Care Reform Employer Mandate Delayed; DOMA Struck Down - What Now For Employers?

Health Care Reform Employer Mandate and Reporting Provisions Delayed until 2015 - The U.S. Department of the Treasury unexpectedly announced on July 2, 2013 the delay of the employer shared responsibility ‘pay or play’...more

Q&A on Employee Benefits After the Supreme Court’s Ruling that DOMA is Unconstitutional

The US Supreme Court has ruled that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which defined marriage for federal law purposes to mean opposite-sex marriage, is unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor, 2013 WL...more

Impact of DOMA Ruling on Employers and Individuals

In the recently-issued opinion in United States v. Windsor, the Supreme Court has ruled that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) is unconstitutional as a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the...more

The DOMA Decision – Employee Benefit Plans Bracing for Impact

On June 26, 2013, the United States Supreme Court issued a landmark decision regarding same-sex marriage. While welcomed by proponents of marriage equality for same-sex couples, the decision left many unanswered questions...more

The Supreme Court's Decision Declaring Section 3 Of The Defense Of Marriage Act Unconstitutional Has Far-Reaching Implications For...

On June 26, 2013, in United States v. Windsor, the United States Supreme Court struck down Section 3 of DOMA, holding that it was unconstitutional to discriminate between same-sex and opposite-sex marriages for purposes of...more

Supreme Court DOMA Decision Is Far-Reaching, but Leaves Many Unanswered Questions for Employers

On June 26, 2013, the United States Supreme Court held in United States v. Windsor, that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (“DOMA”) was “unconstitutional as a deprivation of the equal liberty of persons that is...more

Religious Institutions Update - July 2013

Have you ever wondered how the United States Constitution came to incorporate "free exercise of religion" in the First Amendment? James Madison wrote the initial draft of the Bill of Rights. He and other Federalists initially...more

Special Alert for Employers and Other Benefit Plan Sponsors: How Will the Supreme Court's DOMA Decision Impact Your Employee...

On June 26, 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a decision that will affect virtually all employers across the country. In United States v. Windsor, the Court ruled in a 5-4 decision that Section 3 of the federal Defense of...more

The Impact of the Supreme Court’s DOMA Decision on Employee Benefit Plans — Some Certainty, Many Unanswered Questions

The regulation of marriage was historically presumed to be the exclusive domain of the states. Since 1996, however, the Defense of Marriage Act of 1996 (“DOMA”) changed this presumption in two important respects...more

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