"Meta Tags" are HTML codes entered into the source code of a webpage providing for information on the nature and content of such webpage, which are used to facilitate the indexing and referencing of such a webpage in search...more
The European Parliament and the Council adopted on 23 July 2014 a regulation on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the Internal Market (the "Regulation"). Before that, the Directive on...more
Although the number of registrations of European Patents, Community Trademarks and Community Designs more than doubled between 2003 and 2012, the high numbers of infringements of intellectual property rights (IPRs) harm this...more
Combined offers have always drawn significant attention from French courts. This is all the more the case since combined offers are standard practices when selling computer equipments. Indeed, such equipments are most often...more
The Svensson case is a landmark decision by the European Court of Justice ("ECJ") that enshrines the right to create clickable links towards copyrighted content which is freely available on the internet. The ECJ ruled that...more
The French law on consumer rights, also referred to as the “Hamon law” (“loi Hamon”), was enacted on 17 March 2014.
The introduction of group actions is one of the main innovations of this law. Companies must now...more
The new French Act on consumer protection enacted on March 18, 2014 broadens the investigative powers of the CNIL (the French Data Protection Authority) by enabling its members and empowered agents to carry out online...more
While businesses take a more cautious approach to how they handle IT security threats, these are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated. Denial-of-service attacks, software tampering (e.g. computer viruses and Trojan...more
Last November, French courts have, for the first time, ordered to block entire video streaming websites based on specific laws against copyright infringement (Hadopi 2009 laws1). To some authors, this decision is questionable...more
The directive 2011/83/EU of 25 October 2011 relating to consumer rights (the "Directive") is to be implemented as of December 13, 2013 by Member States in national European jurisdictions, including French jurisdiction, and...more
The existence in several countries of “blocking statutes”, which prohibit the provision of economic information to foreign authorities or courts (or require prior authorization to be obtained before doing so), present a...more
On June 25, 2013, the French Supreme Court rendered a corner-stone decision for all agreements dealing with personal data.
In 2008, a company sold its electronic customer file to its successor in business. It quickly...more
Judicial cross border litigation and/or international arbitration proceedings reveal two distinct systems: common law systems allow a comprehensive collection and disclosure of all existing documents leading to admissible...more