Actual or Constructive Knowledge

News & Analysis as of

Representations & Warranties Insurance: Understanding the Underwriting Process, Timeline, and Key Coverage Terms

The use of representations and warranties insurance is becoming increasingly commonplace in M&A transactions, particularly in competitive auction processes where use of the product has become almost ubiquitous. While much has...more

Second Circuit Adopts Actual-Knowledge Standard for MD&A Disclosures

The Second Circuit held yesterday that Item 303 of SEC Regulation S-K requires issuers to disclose only those trends, events, or uncertainties about which the issuer has actual knowledge, rather than those matters about which...more

California Court Spurns ProFlowers.com’s “Browsewrap” Terms

It is a familiar issue. When should a consumer “be on the hook” for all of the terms and conditions in a company’s agreement accompanying its product or service?...more

Federal Circuit Review | March 2016

Under O2 Micro, a District Court Must Provide a Claim Construction if the Parties Dispute the Meaning of a Claim Term - In Eon Corp. IP Holdings LLC v. Silver Springs Networks, Inc., Appeal No. 2015-1237, the Federal...more

Virtual Patent Marking

Under the patent marking statute, 35 U.S.C. § 287(a), notice can be actual, or constructive notice. Actual notice occurs when the alleged infringer is directly informed that its product infringes the patent. Constructive...more

Computer Usage Records Not Enough to Place Employer on Notice of Unauthorized Overtime

Under the Fair Labor Standards Act, employers are liable for payment of overtime to covered employees. This requirement applies to time that is not specifically authorized by the employer if it is “suffered,” meaning that the...more

Actual knowledge is a prerequisite to liability: Houston Appeals Court reiterates Chapter 95’s central role in suits against...

The Fourteenth Court of Appeals in Oiltanking Houston, L.P. v. Delgado, No. 14-14-00158-CV, 2016 WL 354439 (Tex. App.—Houston [14th Dist.] Jan. 28, 2016, no pet. h.) has reversed a $21 million verdict against a property owner...more

"Constructive Knowledge" Off-The-Clock Claim Rejected

Another federal appellate court, this time the Fifth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals (with jurisdiction over Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) has rejected an employee's claim to have been entitled to federal Fair Labor...more

Illinois Claim for Aiding and Abetting Client's Breach of Fiduciary Duty Time-Barred

Brief Summary - The plaintiff, a shareholder of limited liability company (LLC), filed an action against a law firm and one of its lawyers, alleging they aided and abetted other shareholders in breaching their fiduciary...more

Click it to Stick it: Guide to Creating Binding Online Agreements

Contract terms and purchaser assent to those terms, conditions, intended use and warning information provided with a purchased product are known fertile ground for defending product claims. In today’s virtual age,...more

Third Circuit Adopts Constructive Knowledge Standard To Reverse Vacatur Of Award

The Third Circuit reversed an order vacating an arbitration award after concluding that the plaintiff had waived its right of waiver. In the decision, the Third Circuit joined the First, Second, Eighth, and Ninth Circuits in...more

Wrongful Trading: Robin Hood’s not-so Merry Men

Brooks and another v Armstrong and another [2015] EWHC 2289 (Ch) 0 - In a rare judgment considering wrongful trading in detail, the memorably-named “Robin Hood” case considers at which point the directors ought to have...more

Third Circuit Applies Constructive Knowledge Standard And Finds Waiver Of Arbitration Panel Challenge

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit has found that post-award objections to an arbitrator were waived because the party had constructive knowledge of the arbitrator’s insufficient disclosure. The court held that a...more

Third Circuit Adopts "Constructive Knowledge" Standard for Post-Award Attempts to Disqualify Arbitrators

In a recent opinion addressing an issue of first impression for the court, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit held that a “constructive knowledge” standard applies to post-award challenges to an...more

Religious Discrimination: Do Not Count On The Rosary

On August 20, 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit held that a plaintiff could not prevail on a Title VII religious discrimination claim if there was no evidence the employer knew that the plaintiff refused...more

Clickwrap Agreement Available Only Through Hyperlink Enforceable Under New York Law

Last week, the Southern District of New York followed a long line of precedent under New York law and upheld the enforceability of a website clickwrap agreement, granting a website operator’s motion to compel arbitration...more

Actual or Constructive Receipt of Funds During a Code Section 1031 Deferred Exchange is More Than a Bad Hair Day for the Taxpayer

Background - Actual or constructive receipt of the exchange funds during a deferred exchange under IRC Section 1031 totally kills an exchange and any tax deferral opportunity. Treasury Regulation Section 1031(k)-1(f)(1)...more

Bankruptcy Beat: An Emerging Trend: Bankruptcy Trustees Seeking to Claw Back Tuition Payments Made by Unsuspecting Parents

A developing trend in our nation’s bankruptcy courts has been the number of lawsuits filed or threatened by bankruptcy trustees to recover tuition payments made by a student’s parents when the parents later file for...more

Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Takes Expansive View of Investment Advisor’s Liability Under Blue Sky Law in Hays v. Ellrich

Last week, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) handed down Hays v. Ellrich, a decision with important implications for the investor advising community. The case is significant for two reasons. First, even though...more

What Employers Need to Know about Religious Discrimination after EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch

It’s rather fitting that the Supreme Court’s decision in EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores turns on the idea of one’s belief; it is, after all, a decision about religious discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights...more

Supreme Court Holds That Employers Do Not Need Actual Knowledge of an Applicant’s Need for a Religious Accommodation Before They...

The Supreme Court recently held that job applicants may hold their potential employer liable for intentional discrimination under Title VII if the applicant can show that his or her need for an accommodation was a motivating...more

EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch: Do You Need to Ask Applicants Whether They Require Religious Accommodation?

On June 1, 2015, the United States Supreme Court held that a job applicant can establish religious discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 without proof that the employer had “actual knowledge” of the...more

Heads or Tails? New Guidance from the Supreme Court Nearly Flips Religious Accommodations Law on Its Head

Arabic businesswoman in officeOn Monday, June 1, 2015, the United States Supreme Court held that an employer may not refuse to hire an applicant if the need for a religious accommodation was a motivating factor in the...more

Lack of Actual Knowledge of a Need for a Religious Accommodation is Not a Defense to a Religious Bias Suit

On June 1, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in a religious bias suit involving an unsuccessful Muslim job applicant who was rejected because her headscarf did...more

Supreme Court Finds Employer's Lack of "Actual Knowledge" of Need for Accommodation No Defense to Religious Discrimination Claim

The U.S. Supreme Court recently held that an employer cannot escape liability for religious discrimination under Title VII by arguing that it did not have actual knowledge of an individual's need for a religious...more

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