Actual or Constructive Knowledge

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Wrongful Trading: Robin Hood’s not-so Merry Men

Brooks and another v Armstrong and another [2015] EWHC 2289 (Ch) 0 - In a rare judgment considering wrongful trading in detail, the memorably-named “Robin Hood” case considers at which point the directors ought to have...more

Third Circuit Applies Constructive Knowledge Standard And Finds Waiver Of Arbitration Panel Challenge

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit has found that post-award objections to an arbitrator were waived because the party had constructive knowledge of the arbitrator’s insufficient disclosure. The court held that a...more

Third Circuit Adopts "Constructive Knowledge" Standard for Post-Award Attempts to Disqualify Arbitrators

In a recent opinion addressing an issue of first impression for the court, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit held that a “constructive knowledge” standard applies to post-award challenges to an...more

Religious Discrimination: Do Not Count On The Rosary

On August 20, 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit held that a plaintiff could not prevail on a Title VII religious discrimination claim if there was no evidence the employer knew that the plaintiff refused...more

Clickwrap Agreement Available Only Through Hyperlink Enforceable Under New York Law

Last week, the Southern District of New York followed a long line of precedent under New York law and upheld the enforceability of a website clickwrap agreement, granting a website operator’s motion to compel arbitration...more

Bankruptcy Beat: An Emerging Trend: Bankruptcy Trustees Seeking to Claw Back Tuition Payments Made by Unsuspecting Parents

A developing trend in our nation’s bankruptcy courts has been the number of lawsuits filed or threatened by bankruptcy trustees to recover tuition payments made by a student’s parents when the parents later file for...more

Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Takes Expansive View of Investment Advisor’s Liability Under Blue Sky Law in Hays v. Ellrich

Last week, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) handed down Hays v. Ellrich, a decision with important implications for the investor advising community. The case is significant for two reasons. First, even though...more

City Settles With DOJ Over Extreme Sexual Harassment Claims

Settlement is often the prudent choice when the odds seem stacked against you, and that may be the case for a city which recently settled with the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). The DOJ alleged sexual discrimination in...more

What Employers Need to Know about Religious Discrimination after EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch

It’s rather fitting that the Supreme Court’s decision in EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores turns on the idea of one’s belief; it is, after all, a decision about religious discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights...more

Supreme Court Holds That Employers Do Not Need Actual Knowledge of an Applicant’s Need for a Religious Accommodation Before They...

The Supreme Court recently held that job applicants may hold their potential employer liable for intentional discrimination under Title VII if the applicant can show that his or her need for an accommodation was a motivating...more

EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch: Do You Need to Ask Applicants Whether They Require Religious Accommodation?

On June 1, 2015, the United States Supreme Court held that a job applicant can establish religious discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 without proof that the employer had “actual knowledge” of the...more

Heads or Tails? New Guidance from the Supreme Court Nearly Flips Religious Accommodations Law on Its Head

Arabic businesswoman in officeOn Monday, June 1, 2015, the United States Supreme Court held that an employer may not refuse to hire an applicant if the need for a religious accommodation was a motivating factor in the...more

Lack of Actual Knowledge of a Need for a Religious Accommodation is Not a Defense to a Religious Bias Suit

On June 1, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in a religious bias suit involving an unsuccessful Muslim job applicant who was rejected because her headscarf did...more

Supreme Court Finds Employer's Lack of "Actual Knowledge" of Need for Accommodation No Defense to Religious Discrimination Claim

The U.S. Supreme Court recently held that an employer cannot escape liability for religious discrimination under Title VII by arguing that it did not have actual knowledge of an individual's need for a religious...more

U.S. Supreme Court Case EEOC v. Abercrombie Ruling: Employees Must Prove "Motive" Not Mere "Knowledge" in Order to Demonstrate...

In a closely-watched case arising from the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals, EEOC v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores Inc., the U.S. Supreme Court held yesterday that an applicant or employee need not prove that an employer had...more

Reasonable, Not Perfect, Efforts Required to Avoid Having Constructive Knowledge of an Employee's Disability

What happened? Under the Equality Act 2010, employers are required to make reasonable adjustments where they know, or "ought reasonably to know", that an employee has a disability. This is commonly referred to as actual or...more

Employment Appeal Tribunal gives guidance on what constitutes sufficient knowledge of a disability to give rise to a duty to make...

In Donelien v Liberata, the Employment Appeal Tribunal (“EAT”) has held that an employer did not have constructive knowledge of an employee’s disability, even though further steps could have been taken to investigate her...more

I Falsified My Time Records … But I’m Still Suing You for Overtime

Employers sometimes rely on equitable arguments, such as “unclean hands” (which asserts that it would not be fair to hold an employer liable when the employee’s actions caused or contributed to his own injury or damages). But...more

Florida Appeals Court Holds Contractor and Engineering Firm Entitled to Summary Judgment on Personal Injury Claim Where Owner...

The Florida Department of Transportation (“DOT”) hired Transportation Engineering, Inc. (“TEI”) to design, and D.A.B. Constructors, Inc. (“DAB”) to install, median guardrails along the Florida Turnpike. After the...more

West Virginia Legislature May Put the "Deliberate" Back In Deliberate Intent Claims

House Bill 2011 was introduced in the West Virginia legislature by the new Republican majority on the first day of the legislative session. This same bill was introduced in the Senate as Senate Bill No. 11. The purpose of HB...more

Second Circuit Clarifies a Heightened Standard for Insider Trading Convictions

The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit recently held that, in order to convict a tippee for insider trading under Section 10(b) of the Securities Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5, the government must prove beyond a...more

Court Limits the Enforceability of "Browsewrap" Terms of Use—Best Practices in Online Contracting

In an important decision regarding the viability of so-called "browsewrap" agreements, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit—which covers California, among other states—recently affirmed a district court's...more

Secretly Working Off The Clock—You Don’t Get Paid For That!

Following principles that federal courts have applied in similar cases under the Fair Labor Standards Act, a California appellate court recently confirmed that employers are not liable under the California Labor Code for...more

Think Third Party Harassment Can’t Harm You? Think Again

On April 29, 2014, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit’s ruling of Freeman v. Dal-Tile Corp., No. 13-1481, 2014 WL 1678422 (4th Cir. Apr. 29, 2014) addressed third-party harassment. The Court held...more

Conflict In Fla. Regarding Premises Liability Law

On Feb. 26, 2014, Florida’s Fourth District Court of Appeal (West Palm Beach) certified a conflict with the Third District Court of Appeal (Miami) regarding whether Florida Statute § 768.0755, which governs premises liability...more

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