Will Workplaces Be Going Off The Rails On The Blockchain?

by Fisher Phillips
Contact

Fisher Phillips

What if I told you that technology with internet-like potential will soon lead to a seismic revolution in our society, including the workplace? That you could greatly streamline your hiring process, eliminate misclassification battles, or even save your company from spending legal fees to enforce employment contracts? While you might think this sounds like “fake news,” the technology exists today that could make these things possible sooner than you think. It’s called the Blockchain.

In the near future, every employer will use or interact with Blockchain technology in some fashion. It will fundamentally change the way we transact business with one another, leading to increased efficiency and untold cost savings. Moreover, it will form the backbone of the gig, or sharing, economy. It’s time for all to get aboard the Blockchain.

What Is A Blockchain?

In a nutshell, Blockchain technology allows people to exchange things of value with one another without the trusted middlemen we normally rely on to authenticate transactions, such as governments, banks, or even ride-sharing platforms. It allows us to authenticate and exchange assets, like virtual currency, intellectual property, titles, credentials, resumes, contracts, and personal data, on a decentralized virtual ledger.  

Blockchain is a decentralized database that stores a ledger of assets and transactions across a peer-to-peer network, and uses its network to authenticate transactions. Authentic transactions are then cryptographically secured and stored in blocks of data, which in turn are cryptographically linked and secured. This allows Blockchain transactions to be verified, monitored, and enforced without the presence of a trusted third-party or institution.

Blockchain creates a public historical record of all transactions and what is owned by whom. But instead of centralizing the ledger in just one place or with only one entity, Blockchain’s entire network of users collectively account for a given transaction, and then distribute a shared (i.e., decentralized) public ledger over that same network. The ledger is technically available on any computer using the network, but can only be accessed using a mathematically derived private key.   

Once on a Blockchain, data is unalterable; you can only add data, you cannot remove it. By locking the data cryptographically and replicating it on all computers across the network, Blockchain makes tampering with data virtually impossible. This allows any Blockchain user with proper access to view the data, track its history, and know that it can be trusted. Facilitating a “trustless” transaction affords users the ability to trace the history of all data involved in the transaction to its origins on the network and locate any potential weakness in the chain.

Crazy, But That’s How It Goes: Blockchain In The Workplace

Based on Blockchain’s performance in the area of virtual currency transactions, myriad possibilities and probabilities emerge to impact the workplace.

“Smart” Contracts – Conditioned To Rule And Control

Blockchain technology can revolutionize work-related contracts and save millions of dollars in the process through the use of “smart” contracts – computer code developed to facilitate, verify, monitor, execute, and enforce the terms of an agreement.   

Smart contracts are not new. Using Blockchain, however, a smart contract can manage itself with little to no human effort. Blockchain technology can authenticate the various promises in the contract, validating that each party has the ability perform the tasks it is responsible for. For instance, in an employment contract, Blockchain can verify that an employee has requisite qualifications for the job. 

Moreover, performance of a smart contract can be more easily monitored through Blockchain technology. This monitoring could be performed either using an interface that allows the parties to access the Blockchain, or, since they are programmable, the parties may choose to code contracts so that monitoring occurs automatically. 

The most promising feature of Blockchain, however, is its ability to allow a smart contract to self-enforce. This allows for substantial savings on costs associated with enforcement, such as labor expenses, legal fees, court costs, and more. You could, for example, design restrictive covenants and other provisions in an employment agreement that can trigger enforcement mechanisms, like automatic forfeiture of previously authenticated and verified cryptocurrency, or even immediate revocation of credentialing.

Smart contracts could be used in a variety of other ways, too. Collective bargaining agreements could be reduced to smart contracts and uploaded to the Blockchain. Or you could also use Blockchain to functionalize employee handbooks and other policies. The variety of means by which Blockchain may be used to enforce contracts or policies is limited only by the data on the Blockchain and the coding of the smart contract or policy. In other words, the possibilities are endless. 

Blockchain In HR – Making Your Own Rules

Blockchain will transform the way human resources departments access and use employee data. Employers can create, manage, and securely store everything from employee applications and background checks to credentials and performance reviews on the Blockchain. Since it is a trustless technology, anyone using employee data on the chain has no reason to question its authenticity. Even the seemingly simple, yet many times difficult, task of checking references could be eliminated. Blockchain could be programmed to authenticate employee resume information, including references, using the Blockchain network. 

Organized Labor – Living With Something That Just Isn’t Fair

Blockchain also has the potential to put a significant dent in organized labor. Workers currently have two binary choices: vote to join a union, or not. Blockchain technology could create a third possible alternative. 

By combining smart contracts with workers’ ability to share and use information in a cooperative fashion, Blockchain-enabled collective representation is possible. Workers could organize and sign representation cards on Blockchain without centralized assistance from a union. Elections could occur on Blockchain, and collective bargaining agreements could be reduced to smart contracts and programmed on a Blockchain. In a democratized Blockchain-driven union, members would likely see lower dues and an organization less susceptible to corruption. 

Gig Employment – Millions No Longer Living As Your Foes?

As with all Blockchain applications, the technology allows workers in the gig, or sharing, economy to operate without a trusted third-party intermediary; in this case, the business connecting gig workers and consumers. Blockchain could give workers even more freedom than they currently enjoy and customers the potential for increased savings.

Here is how it would work. Instead of using an existing ride-sharing service, driver Ozzy and passenger Sharon would use a new ride-sharing application that interfaces with a Blockchain on their smartphones. Sharon would request a ride on the new app, and Ozzy, whose driving credentials had previously been authenticated and uploaded to the Blockchain, would accept Sharon’s request.

The network would then authenticate the transaction and any requisite conditions, such as a driver’s license verification. Once authenticated and complete, the transaction would be entered on the Blockchain as a block of data. Passenger payment and driver reviews could also be entered. The transaction record exists permanently and may be viewed by the next person seeking a ride from Ozzy or the next driver responding to a request from Sharon. 

All gig businesses, not just ride-sharing services, could face the impending challenge of irrelevancy with this new technology. It is unlikely, however, that behemoths like Uber and Airbnb will allow smaller competitors running applications on Blockchain to dethrone them. These entities incorporating Blockchain into their existing business model is a much more likely probability. However, if you operate in a sharing economy business, you should start planning to use the technology before your workers develop their own and realize they don’t need you.

Blockchain would certainly save gig companies on recordkeeping costs, but it also has the potential to do something far greater: end the argument about whether gig workers are misclassified as independent contractors. By incorporating Blockchain technology into their existing models, gig employers can act simply as user interfaces programmed to use a Blockchain to facilitate transactions between workers and customers. Further relinquishing control over workers could put to an end the expensive legal challenges that have cost gig companies dearly. 

Implementation Challenges: When Things Are Going Wrong For You

Despite the warranted jubilance surrounding this new technology, practical and legal considerations should cause employers to pause before immediately adopting it. Several challenges need to be addressed before you board the Blockchain train.

Building A Workplace Blockchain – Inheriting Troubles

In order to achieve widespread adoption, Blockchains will have to connect and work together. Blockchains have rules that can limit the type of data or transaction they accept; for example, Bitcoin’s Blockchain only allows transactional data for the exchange and holding of Bitcoin. So if you want to run a new type of transaction or use new data, an existing Blockchain may not work, and developing a new Blockchain can be expensive and not a universally desirable undertaking.

It is also a stretch to think it’s possible to create a Blockchain that contemplates all the different types of data and transactions we could ever need. Instead, various companies, governments, and groups are developing technology called “sidechains,” which allow different Blockchain networks to work together. This allows for the building of an interconnected web of Blockchains, greatly scaling data and allowing for numerous different transactions to occur. Eventually companies may be able to tap into this web of networks, but more progress is needed before achieving this desired functionality.

Privacy Concerns – Mentally Numb

Blockchains can contain a massive amount of personally identifiable information and other related data. Current privacy regulations, such the European Union’s new General Regulation on Data Protection (GRDP), are ill-equipped to handle personal data on Blockchain, especially if it’s public. Thus, companies should consider privacy implications when considering Blockchain technology. 

Take the GRDP’s codification of the “right of erasure,” or “the right to be forgotten,” as an example. The right of erasure declares that individuals have the right to have their personal data erased after the balancing of certain public interests. Most free countries have laws that allow individuals to have information removed from third-party databases under certain circumstances; examples in the United States include expungement of criminal records, removal of inaccurate information from credit reports under the Fair Credit Reporting Act, and the right to have defamatory information removed from a website.

However, a cornerstone of Blockchain, and the key to its reliability, is the permanence of the data uploaded. All users of the Blockchain network would have to simultaneously agree to remove the data to comply with certain legal requirements, which is a virtual impossibility. Moreover, erasing one piece of data would alter all subsequent transactions that relied on it, thus creating an alternate future (more appropriately described today as “alternative facts”).

The Healthcare Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) presents another potential data security roadblock for Blockchain technology. Blockchain uses mathematical private keys (pseudonyms) for verification and authentication purposes. Because these private keys allow for the possibility of re-identification of anonymized protected health information, this aspect of Blockchain violates HIPAA’s Privacy Rule. 

Paying Employees With Virtual Currency – Listening To Fools

Although not a requirement, the potential of Blockchain technology is optimized by using virtual currency for any transaction requiring some sort of payment. This is because the virtual currency itself is on a Blockchain, thus eliminating third-parties that come along with traditional currency, like banks and clearinghouses, that charge higher fees and have slower processing times. However, using virtual currency comes with certain risks at the present moment.

First, there is the practical issue of acceptance. Virtual currency and its value are still unknown to most people. Many are suspicious of it, with their only previous exposure being sordid stories like the now-infamous Silk Road incident. From an employee relations perspective, nothing good can come from forcing employees to accept virtual money, especially if local laws prevent payment in such a fashion.  

Moreover, the value of virtual currencies fluctuates wildly. Bitcoin, for example, may be up 30 percent one day and down 50 percent the next, making it difficult to value your product or an employee’s service. Paying employees in virtual currency increases the risk of violating wage and hour laws, as a company paying an employee one Bitcoin per week could violate minimum wage laws if the value drops precipitously before payday. If you want to use virtual currency as a form of compensation, a better approach would be to use government-backed currency to satisfy minimum wage and overtime requirements, and offer Bitcoin only as a bonus. 

Conclusion: You Gotta Listen To My Words

Blockchain technology will change the way we transact business with each other, including how we interact with employees. It may even give new definition to the sharing economy. When you do not have to trust the other party to a transaction in order to consummate it, the possibilities are endless.

You should initiate conversations with your IT department and security teams to determine whether Blockchain plans are in the works at your company. If so, you will want to provide legal and human resources counseling, making sure to include employee relations and data security teams in the discussions. The extent to which Blockchain is deployed in the workplace, and how employers actually use it, remains to be seen. Regardless, before long we will all be going off the rails on the Blockchain.

Written by:

Fisher Phillips
Contact
more
less

Fisher Phillips on:

Readers' Choice 2017
Reporters on Deadline

"My best business intelligence, in one easy email…"

Your first step to building a free, personalized, morning email brief covering pertinent authors and topics on JD Supra:
*By using the service, you signify your acceptance of JD Supra's Privacy Policy.
Custom Email Digest
- hide

JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

Please note that if you subscribe to one of our Services, you can make choices about how we collect, use and share your information through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard (available if you are logged into your JD Supra account).

Collection of Information

Registration Information. When you register with JD Supra for our Website and Services, either as an author or as a subscriber, you will be asked to provide identifying information to create your JD Supra account ("Registration Data"), such as your:

  • Email
  • First Name
  • Last Name
  • Company Name
  • Company Industry
  • Title
  • Country

Other Information: We also collect other information you may voluntarily provide. This may include content you provide for publication. We may also receive your communications with others through our Website and Services (such as contacting an author through our Website) or communications directly with us (such as through email, feedback or other forms or social media). If you are a subscribed user, we will also collect your user preferences, such as the types of articles you would like to read.

Information from third parties (such as, from your employer or LinkedIn): We may also receive information about you from third party sources. For example, your employer may provide your information to us, such as in connection with an article submitted by your employer for publication. If you choose to use LinkedIn to subscribe to our Website and Services, we also collect information related to your LinkedIn account and profile.

Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

How do we use this information?

We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

  • Operate our Website and Services and publish content;
  • Distribute content to you in accordance with your preferences as well as to provide other notifications to you (for example, updates about our policies and terms);
  • Measure readership and usage of the Website and Services;
  • Communicate with you regarding your questions and requests;
  • Authenticate users and to provide for the safety and security of our Website and Services;
  • Conduct research and similar activities to improve our Website and Services; and
  • Comply with our legal and regulatory responsibilities and to enforce our rights.

How is your information shared?

  • Content and other public information (such as an author profile) is shared on our Website and Services, including via email digests and social media feeds, and is accessible to the general public.
  • If you choose to use our Website and Services to communicate directly with a company or individual, such communication may be shared accordingly.
  • Readership information is provided to publishing law firms and authors of content to give them insight into their readership and to help them to improve their content.
  • Our Website may offer you the opportunity to share information through our Website, such as through Facebook's "Like" or Twitter's "Tweet" button. We offer this functionality to help generate interest in our Website and content and to permit you to recommend content to your contacts. You should be aware that sharing through such functionality may result in information being collected by the applicable social media network and possibly being made publicly available (for example, through a search engine). Any such information collection would be subject to such third party social media network's privacy policy.
  • Your information may also be shared to parties who support our business, such as professional advisors as well as web-hosting providers, analytics providers and other information technology providers.
  • Any court, governmental authority, law enforcement agency or other third party where we believe disclosure is necessary to comply with a legal or regulatory obligation, or otherwise to protect our rights, the rights of any third party or individuals' personal safety, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security or safety issues.
  • To our affiliated entities and in connection with the sale, assignment or other transfer of our company or our business.

How We Protect Your Information

JD Supra takes reasonable and appropriate precautions to insure that user information is protected from loss, misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction. We restrict access to user information to those individuals who reasonably need access to perform their job functions, such as our third party email service, customer service personnel and technical staff. You should keep in mind that no Internet transmission is ever 100% secure or error-free. Where you use log-in credentials (usernames, passwords) on our Website, please remember that it is your responsibility to safeguard them. If you believe that your log-in credentials have been compromised, please contact us at privacy@jdsupra.com.

Children's Information

Our Website and Services are not directed at children under the age of 16 and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 16 through our Website and/or Services. If you have reason to believe that a child under the age of 16 has provided personal information to us, please contact us, and we will endeavor to delete that information from our databases.

Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
    • Right of Access/Portability: You can ask to review details about the information we hold about you and how that information has been used and disclosed. Note that we may request to verify your identification before fulfilling your request. You can also request that your personal information is provided to you in a commonly used electronic format so that you can share it with other organizations.
    • Right to Correct Information: You may ask that we make corrections to any information we hold, if you believe such correction to be necessary.
    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
  • "Persistent cookies" - These cookies stay on your computer or device after your browser has been closed and last for a time specified in the cookie. We use persistent cookies when we need to know who you are for more than one browsing session. For example, we use them to remember your preferences for the next time you visit.
  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
  • Google Analytics - For more information on Google Analytics cookies, visit www.google.com/policies. To opt-out of being tracked by Google Analytics across all websites visit http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. This will allow you to download and install a Google Analytics cookie-free web browser.

Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

- hide

This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.