Burden of Proof

News & Analysis as of

Wrongful Trading: Robin Hood’s not-so Merry Men

Brooks and another v Armstrong and another [2015] EWHC 2289 (Ch) 0 - In a rare judgment considering wrongful trading in detail, the memorably-named “Robin Hood” case considers at which point the directors ought to have...more

Heedless Heeding Presumptions – How New York Law Became a Morass

Ever since this blog started, we’ve made plain that we have no use for the so-called “heeding presumption.” This presumption posits that, because under Restatement §402A, comment j, a defendant providing an adequate warning...more

Some Useful Insights from Steris-Synergy Merger Case

The Federal Trade Commission suffered a rare loss when, on Sept. 24, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio denied its request for a preliminary injunction, despite having accepted the FTC’s “actual...more

How to Prepare for the New California Fair Pay Act

Changes in the Act will increase the difficulty employers face in justifying pay differentials. On October 6, 2015, Governor Brown signed into law the California Fair Pay Act. The California Fair Pay Act amends Labor...more

California Governor Signs Strictest Equal Pay Law in U.S.

Yesterday, October 6, California Governor Jerry Brown signed the California Fair Pay Act, which media observers have called the nation’s most aggressive equal pay law. The Fair Pay Act will be effective January 1, 2016 for...more

MoFo New York Tax Insights - Volume 6, Issue 10

State Tax Department Releases Draft Article 9-A Nexus Regulations Under Corporate Tax Reform - The New York State Department of Taxation and Finance has released draft amendments to the Article 9-A corporate franchise...more

"New York Courts and International Arbitration Tribunals Take Varying Approaches to Corruption Issues in Commercial Disputes"

When faced with questions of corruption in a commercial dispute, New York courts and international arbitration tribunals have historically taken different approaches. In particular, questions often arise pertaining to...more

Federal District Court Addresses Measure of Damages in ERISA Breach of Fiduciary Duty Case

Fiduciaries of two defined contribution retirement plans sponsored by the same employer (the “Plans”) sued the Plans’ former investment manager for breach of ERISA fiduciary duties and state law violations in connection with...more

"Shifting Burdens: Structuring a Rule of Reason in Reverse-Payment Cases"

The U.S. Supreme Court’s 2013 decision in Federal Trade Commission v. Actavis, Inc. triggered a flurry of judicial activity in relation to pharmaceutical patent settlements allegedly involving reverse payments from patent...more

Lawyers, Guns, and Parking Lots – A review of Tennessee’s Public Chapter 80

The Tennessee Legislature recently provided employees with a valid handgun carry permit a new private right of action against their employers. As of July 1, 2015, pursuant to Public Chapter 80, Tennessee employees – who...more

Proceed With Caution – Indiana Property Tax Appeals: Receipt Of Tax Bill Triggered Right To Appeal; Relevancy Objection Overruled;...

In Alvarado v. Lake County Assessor (Aug. 5, 2015), the Indiana Board of Tax Review considered a number of procedural and evidentiary issues in ruling on the 2012 assessment appeal for a residential property....more

Products Liability – Raw Material Supplier – Consumer Expectations Test

David Johnson, et al. v. United States Steel Corporation - Court of Appeal, First District (September 1, 2015) - In a products liability case, a plaintiff may seek recovery on theories of both negligence and...more

An Employee Stole Your Trade Secrets but You Cannot Prove It. Now What?

Consider the following, relatively uncommon scenario: an employee stole your trade secrets and went to work for a competitor. You know the employee did it, you just cannot prove it. Even with the best forensic analysis it is...more

Eastern District of Pennsylvania: Insureds’ Negligence And Unfair Trade Practices Claims Against Adjusters Are Colorable Under...

Kennedy v. Allstate, No. 15-2221 (E.D. Pa. July 8, 2015). District Court recognizes possibility that insurance adjusters owe a duty of care to insureds that would be breached by failing to conduct a reasonable...more

Form 133 Petitions Could Not Be Used to Prove Zero Property Tax Assessments for Common Area Land

In a consolidated case involving more than two dozen appeals, the Indiana Tax Court on September 3, 2015, found in Pulte Homes of Indiana, LLC v. Hendricks County Assessor that the Indiana Board of Tax of Review properly...more

ITC Finds Nokia Does Not Infringe Interdigital Patents, So Does Not Address FRAND Issues (337-TA-613)

On Friday, the U.S. International Trade Commission issued a Notice on its review of Judge Essex’s decision in the InterDigital v. Nokia investigation and found that Nokia did not infringe InterDigital’s 3GPP patents (see our...more

Take-Off Denied for Airline Fuel Surcharge Class Action

Last week, the British Columbia Supreme Court dismissed five class action certification applications in Unlu v. Air Canada (Unlu), which were brought against airlines regarding the manner in which fuel surcharges are...more

Federal Reserve Board Issues Clarification on Treatment of Transactions-Monitoring Costs Under Regulation II

On August 14, 2015, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the Board) published a clarification (the Clarification) of the Board’s decision to include transactions-monitoring costs in establishing the 21-cent...more

Five Lessons From 2015 Healthcare Deals

In 2015, we already have seen a great deal of activity in healthcare transactions that is attracting antitrust scrutiny, with mixed results. Among the winners have been Cabell and St. Mary's, which received state clearance...more

Illinois Appellate Court Reverses Asbestos Verdict on Sole Proximate Cause Argument

In Smith v. Illinois Central Railroad Co., the Fourth District of Illinois recently overturned a $1.4 million verdict against the Illinois Central Railroad. At trial, the Court had excluded evidence of the decedent's work at...more

Flushing Out the Safe Harbor: “General Land Area Minimum” Offers Newton No 40B Shelter

Municipalities long unable to achieve ten percent affordable housing are now turning more frequently to a different Safe Harbor to block development of low and moderate income housing – compliance with the “General Land Area...more

Supreme Court Holds That Disparate-Impact Claims are Available Under the FHA

The Fair Housing Act (FHA) prohibits lenders, brokers, landlords or any other person from discriminating against a person seeking to rent, purchase or secure financing on a home. The FHA specifically prohibits discrimination...more

No Damages Awarded for ERISA Plan Fund Mapping Claims

Mapping in a 401(k) plan occurs when an investment option is removed and the participant’s investment in that option is transferred to a different investment option (absent direction from the participant). On remand from the...more

Disparate Impact is Here to Stay: What the Supreme Court's Decision Means for the Multi-Family Industry

On June 25, 2015, Justice Kennedy delivered the Supreme Court’s decision in Texas v. Inclusive Communities Project. In the case, the Court determined that the Fair Housing Act of 1968 includes disparate impact claims. Prior...more

Supreme Court Affirms FHA Disparate Impact Claims

Late last month, the Supreme Court handed down a significant decision affecting rights and obligations under the Fair Housing Act. The Court’s 5-4 decision in Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs v. Inclusive...more

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