Preponderance of the Evidence

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Final Policy Memorandum Provides Needed Predictability and Guidance on Job Portability Determinations

On March 18, 2016, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) released a final policy memorandum that offers guidance on determining whether a new job is in “the same or similar occupational classification”...more

Job Applicant Was Rejected Due to Dishonesty, Not Prior Lawsuit, Says Sixth Circuit

On April 8, 2016, the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed a judgment in favor of an employer in Hance v. BNSF Railway Company, a failure-to-hire retaliation case brought under the Uniformed Services Employment and...more

PTAB Holds Orthophoenix Patent Claims Invalid

The Patent Trial and Appeal Board (the “Board”) recently issued Final Written Decisions in two inter partes reviews filed by Stryker Corporation regarding two related Orthophoenix, LLC patents – U.S. Patent Nos. 7,153,307...more

Breach of Fiduciary Duty Judgment May Be Dischargeable In Bankruptcy

It is not uncommon for a successful plaintiff in a breach of fiduciary duty case to have their collection efforts thwarted by a defendant filing for bankruptcy. The issue is whether the state court judgment is dischargeable...more

Here We Go Round the Merry-Go-Round: How a § 101 Denial May Inform a Subsequent Motion

With the explosion of 35 U.S.C. § 101 challenges since Alice v. CLS Bank,1 litigants and courts are well familiar with its applicable two-part inquiry. Overlaying and shaping the Alice inquiry, however, are the parties’...more

On Remand, District Court Rules for the Fiduciaries in Tatum v. R.J. Reynolds

The R.J. Reynolds defendants have again prevailed against allegations that they breached their fiduciary duties by divesting the RJR 401(k) plan of funds invested in Nabisco stock. Following remand by the Fourth Circuit, the...more

Expected Toxicity of Claimed Immunoconjugates Thwarts Showing of Prima Facie Obviousness (Phigenix, Inc. v. Immunogen, Inc.,...

In an inter partes review (IPR) proceeding, the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (Board) upheld the patentability of Phigenix’s patent claims that were challenged on the basis of obviousness. Phigenix, Inc. v. Immunogen, Inc.,...more

Patent Challenger Loses with Unreasonably Broad Claim Construction

In Trivascular, Inc., v. Samuels, [2015-1631) (February 5, 2015), the Federal Circuit affirmed a rare PTAB determination in an IPR that the claims of U.S. Patent No. 6,007,575 were not shown to be invalid. The claims were...more

BioPharma Patents: Quick Tips & News - January 2016

Subject matter eligibility and “laws of nature.” As reported in our July 2015 newsletter, the Federal Circuit invalidated claims to a method of diagnosing fetal abnormalities without amniocentesis. This precedent—if it...more

New Year, New Fraudulent Transfer Law

It’s a new year, and we have a new law affecting debtors and creditors in California. Effective January 1, 2016, California’s Uniform Voidable Transactions Act (UVTA) has replaced California’s Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act...more

Changes in California’s Fraudulent Transfer Law

QUESTION: I heard California’s fraudulent transfer law is being changed. How will the changes affect my ability to pursue fraudulent transfers as a receiver? ANSWER: Earlier this year the California legislature, based on...more

It Can Happen: PTAB Alters Final Written Decision on Rehearing - Square, Inc. v. REM Holdings 3, LLC

In a rare decision granting a petitioner’s rehearing request, the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB or Board) reversed its earlier position in a final written decision where it found that the petitioner had not shown that...more

Federal Circuit Addresses Substantial Evidence as Standard of Review in IPR

In June, 2014, the PTAB declared all challenged claims in two IPR trials brought by Gnosis S.p.A. to be unpatentable based on obviousness grounds. Gnosis S.p.A. v. S. Ala. Medical Science Found., IPR2013-00116 and Gnosis...more

New Pinellas County Wage Theft Ordinance Goes Into Effect January 1

The commissioners of Pinellas County recently adopted a wage theft ordinance that will become effective on January 1, 2016. The ordinance provides that if any employer fails to pay wages of at least $60 due to an employee 14...more

Sales Data Alone Insufficient to Support CAFA Jurisdiction in Gerber’s Graduates Puffs Labeling Case

In Gyorke-Takatri v. Nestle USA, Inc., the United States District Court for the Northern District of California held that parties in a class action seeking to remove an action to federal court must provide sufficient...more

Threshold for Institution Is Preponderance of Evidence - Nestlé Purina Petcare Co. v. Oil-Dri Corp. of America

In a decision denying the patent owner’s request for rehearing, the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB or Board) explained that when instituting an inter partes review (IPR) on obviousness grounds, a petitioner must only...more

Preponderance Standard Applies to Ex Parte Re-examinations - Dome Patent L.P. v. Lee

Addressing the presumption of validity in ex parte re-examinations, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reiterated that the presumption of validity does not apply to patents under reexamination in the U.S....more

The New York City Commission on Human Rights Releases Enforcement Guidance on the Stop Credit Discrimination in Employment Act

Last week, the Stop Credit Discrimination in Employment Act became effective. It amended the New York City Human Rights Law to prohibit most employers from making employment decisions based on an employee or applicant’s...more

NYC Commission on Human Rights Releases Interpretive Enforcement Guide for the SCDEA

The Commission’s guide outlines narrow interpretation and recordkeeping requirements for employers seeking exemptions to the SCDEA, as well as guidance on enforcement and penalties for SCDEA violations....more

California’s New Voidable Transactions Act

California’s recently enacted Uniform Voidable Transactions Act (UVTA), makes it easier for creditors to recover assets that are transferred to third parties when a debtor is insolvent, even when there is no improper intent...more

New Specialized Knowledge Standards Coming for L-1B Transfers

Multinational companies wishing to transfer foreign national employees to the U.S. under the L-1B program will have to show the employee’s “specialized knowledge” by a “preponderance of evidence” under new guidance published...more

Lessons Learned From the 1st Successful Pharmaceutical IPR Defense of Orange Book Listed Patents

In three petitions filed on the same day in 2013, styled Amneal v. Supernus, Amneal filed what appears to be the first challenge of Orange Book listed pharmaceutical patents that led to institution followed by a final...more

Fraudulent Transfers Get an Update in California

Why it matters - With the enactment of the Uniform Voidable Transaction Act (UVTA) to supersede the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (UFTA), California has put a fresh spin on the law of fraudulent transfers in the state....more

USCIS Proposes: L-1B Adjudications Policy

The Key – Applying the “Preponderance of the Evidence” standard”? Immigration practitioners are trying to figure out what to make of the proposed Policy Memorandum on L-1B Adjudications Policy (hereinafter “Guidance”)...more

Third Circuit Weighs In On Burden of Proof and Evidentiary Standards Applicable to Cases Removed Under CAFA

Days before the Supreme Court’s decision addressing the requirements for CAFA notices of removal in Dart Cherokee Basin Operating Co., LLC v. Owens, the Third Circuit addressed the evidentiary requirements for surviving a...more

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