Supremacy Clause

News & Analysis as of

Ninth Circuit Adopts California Rule Voiding Arbitration Provisions Barring Certain Representative Claims

In recent decisions, both the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and the California Supreme Court have held that arbitration clauses barring employees from pursuing class actions in arbitration are unenforceable with...more

Supreme Court Invalidates Maryland Power Plant Subsidy Program and Reaffirms FERC’s Exclusive Authority Over Wholesale Capacity...

On April 19, 2016, for the second time in three months, the Supreme Court of the United States reaffirmed the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) over the formation of wholesale rates in...more

The Challenges of the Evolving Marijuana Industry: Reconciling State Legislation with Federal Prohibition

Cultivation, production, distribution, or possession of marijuana is a federal criminal offense under the Controlled Substances Act (the CSA). Yet, despite federal prohibition, state-sanctioned marijuana industries have...more

California Resale Royalty Act Claims Dismissed as Preempted by Copyright Law, Despite 1980 Ninth Circuit Holding to the Contrary

Just three months after the Supreme Court denied certiorari review of last year’s Ninth Circuit decision finding California’s Resale Royalty Act unconstitutional under the Dormant Commerce Clause in part—but also valid in...more

Federal Preemption of State and Local Laws Governing Children's Products

In January 2015, Albany County became the first of several municipalities in New York to enact a version of the “Toxic Free Toys Act” ("the Act") prohibiting any amount of six heavy metals and benzene in children’s products...more

Supreme Court Considers Preemption of Puerto Rico's Recovery Act

On Tuesday, March 22, 2016, the Supreme Court heard oral arguments in Puerto Rico v. Franklin California Tax-Free Trust and Acosta-Febo v. Franklin California Tax-Free Trust, which address the constitutionality of Puerto...more

Cannabis and Preemption: U.S. Supreme Court Refuses to Hear Suit by Colorado’s Neighbors

In what was generally considered to be the biggest challenge to Colorado’s recreational cannabis laws to date, the U.S. Supreme Court denied a motion by the states of Nebraska and Oklahoma seeking to file a Bill of Complaint,...more

Supreme Court Rejects Private Suits to Challenge Medicaid Rate Reductions

One of the areas of healthcare impacted heavily by the Great Recession beginning in 2007 was Medicaid reimbursement. Cash-strapped states, in an attempt to alleviate budgetary issues, reduced Medicaid provider reimbursement...more

In Cooperative Federalism, Who Gets Deference, EPA or the States? Can you say “Federal Supremacy”?

Earlier this week, the 9th Circuit denied Arizona’s challenge to EPA’s decision to reject Arizona’s SIP addressing regional haze requirements and instead promulgate its own federal implementation plan. The decision has a...more

Russian law on the priority of the RF Constitution over resolutions of intergovernmental human rights bodies

On 15 December 2015, Federal Constitutional Law No. 7-FKZ dated 14 December 2015 "On amendments to the Federal Constitutional Law 'On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation'" (the "Law") prepared pursuant to...more

Supreme Court Update: Montgomery V. Louisiana (14-280), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission V. Electric Power Supply Association...

The decision in Montgomery v. Louisiana (14-280) was a biggie, and not just because it retroactively applied the Court's 2012 holding that mandatory sentences of life without parole for juvenile offenders violate the Eighth...more

Federal court rules that DEA must stop interfering with compliant medical marijuana businesses

On October 19, 2015, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California rejected an argument by the US Government seeking a narrow interpretation of congressional legislation designed to limit federal...more

Policy and Legal Implications of Implementing Renewable Energy at Scale: Supply and Demand Geographic Mismatch (Part 2 of 6)

The Problem: Supply and Demand Geographic Mismatch Because much of America’s renewable energy supply is inland and demand is on the coasts (about 52% of the U.S. population is coastal), demand cannot meet supply without...more

Kentucky Supreme Court Compares Giving Up Jury Trial To Giving Up Parental Rights; Refuses To Enforce Arbitration

Nursing home arbitration agreements are among the most unpopular arbitration agreements around.  Last week, Kentucky’s Supreme Court issued a lengthy, but fractured, opinion, finding three arbitration agreements were never...more

The National Labor Relations Board says “Happy Labor Day” with Flurry of Late Summer Pro-Union Moves

While some people may have been on vacation at the end of August, the past few weeks have been extremely busy at the National Labor Relations Board (“NLRB” or “Board”), with a series of decisions that will continue to make it...more

Third Circuit Rejects New Jersey's Bid to Legalize Sports Betting—Again

For the second time in two years, the Third Circuit Court of Appeals has rejected the state of New Jersey's attempt to legalize sports betting because it conflicts with federal law. In a 2-1 decision in NCAA v. Christie...more

Trade Secret Legislation Reintroduced in Congress (3rd Time)

Maybe the third time is the charm. After trying twice before, Congress is making another run at creating a federal claim for trade secret misappropriation. A bipartisan group of legislators from both congressional chambers,...more

Colorado Supreme Court Upholds Firing For Medical Marijuana Use

In a closely watched case, the Colorado Supreme Court ruled that an employer could lawfully terminate an employee who tested positive for marijuana in a random drug test, even though the employee’s use of marijuana was...more

Colorado Supreme Court Plays Debbie Downer for Medical Pot Users

The wait is finally over. Employers in Colorado – and in other states with similar lifestyle laws – can breathe a sigh of relief following a recent ruling by the Colorado Supreme Court. In Coats v. Dish Network, a...more

It’s Not All “High” in the Rockies – Colorado Supreme Court Finds That Employees Can Be Fired For Use of Medical Marijuana

As more states legalize medical marijuana and consider legalization of “recreational” marijuana, many employers have wrestled with the question of whether they can still maintain a drug free workplace or must allow employees...more

Developments in Long-Term Care – Q1 2015

The following summary highlights key federal court cases and administrative decisions involving skilled nursing facility survey issues during the first quarter of 2015. Federal Court Cases - Fifth Circuit Upholds...more

The FDIC Reigns “Supreme” in Nevada

For several years, Nevada Courts have considered a myriad of issues related to how Nevada law applies to loans made by banks that are later take over by the FDIC. In the past eight months, the Nevada Supreme Court has...more

Supreme Court Preserves States' Power to Protect Consumers But in the Process Blurs Federal Preemption Analysis

The Supreme Court once again showed that, when it comes to the antitrust laws, the consumer is king. In Oneok, Inc. v. Learjet, the Court was asked to decide where state antitrust laws end and federal regulation begins. The...more

Supreme Court Update: Rodriguez v. United States (13-9972); United States v. Wong (13-1074 And 13-7075); Oneok, Inc. v. Learjet,...

When is a sniff not up to snuff (as far as the Fourth Amendment is concerned)? Ten years ago, in Illinois v. Caballes (2005), the Court held that a dog sniff conducted during a lawful traffic stop does not violate the Fourth...more

The Supreme Court Holds That Medicaid Providers Cannot Sue To Enforce Federal Reimbursement Rate Standards

On March 31, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in Armstrong v. Exceptional Child Center, Inc., holding that Medicaid providers cannot sue to enforce reimbursement standards set forth in federal Medicaid law....more

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