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Fourth Amendment

The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures and provides that warrants may only be granted upon findings of probable cause. The Fourth... more +
The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures and provides that warrants may only be granted upon findings of probable cause. The Fourth Amendment applies to the States via the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.  Important areas of Fourth Amendment jurisprudence flow from questions surrounding the definitions of "search" and "seizure," the applicability of the Amendment to so-called "stop and frisk" situations, the level of control that must be exerted by law enforcement before an individual is deemed "seized," and the "exclusionary rule," just to name a few.    less -

The Circuit Raises A Glass To A Broad Construction Of Law Enforcement’s Authority Under The Fourth Amendment

Yesterday the Second Circuit issued a decision in United States v. Diaz, No. 15-3776 (Walker, Sack, Chin). In an opinion by Judge Sack, the Court addressed two questions under the Fourth Amendment: when does a police...more

Latest Legal Developments On Student Searches

by Tucker Arensberg, P.C. on

Highhouse v. Wayne Highlands School District, — F.Supp.3d — 2016 WL 4679012 (M.D. Pa. Sept. 7, 2016): claims relating to unlawful strip search of student accused of stealing money against individual employees and a school...more

The IRS and the Controlled Substance Act

by Garvey Schubert Barer on

Two recent District Court cases, High Desert Relief, Inc. v. United States of America and Alpenglow Botanicals, LLC et. al. v. United States of America have raised a novel issue in the IRS’s audits of cannabis businesses....more

The FTC and LabMD’s Legal Battle Gets Personal: First Amendment Claims Against FTC Lawyers Survive

The Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) sprawling and contentious legal battle with now-defunct medical testing company LabMD recently took an unusual turn when a federal court allowed LabMD (and its former CEO) to proceed with...more

Immigration Fact and Fiction for the U.S. Employer: More on CBP Searching Electronic Devices – What is Left of the Fourth...

As mentioned in a prior blog post, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) can conduct searches of individuals departing the United States, a fact that many are not aware of. In fact, the rule that failure to declare...more

On the Border: Lawmakers Seek to End Warrantless Searches of Electronic Devices by Border Authorities

by Snell & Wilmer on

The controversial practice of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agents randomly demanding that Americans turn over passwords to their mobile devices so they can be searched at the border and at ports of entry may be...more

Beware of Potential Punitive Damages Associated with Section 1983 Actions

by SmithAmundsen LLC on

Under Title 42 § 1983 of the U.S. Code, liability is imposed upon individuals and entities that act “under color of law.” Based on the Fourth Amendment, people have the right to be secure against unreasonable searches and...more

Privacy Tip #80 – Continued Controversy Over Mobile Device Searches by CBP

Many people were shocked and outraged over the story I relayed about a U.S. citizen, in fact, a NASA scientist, who, after returning from racing solar cars abroad was required by Custom and Border Patrol (CBP) agents to hand...more

ALJ Rules that OFCCP Exceeded its Authority in Demanding Certain Employee Compensation Data from Google

by FordHarrison on

In January, the OFCCP filed an administrative complaint against Google for denying access to records in violation of applicable federal affirmative action laws and implementing regulations. The Administrative Law Judge (ALJ)...more

Supreme Court Update: SCA Hygiene Products V. First Quality Baby Products (15-927), NLRB V. Southwest General (15-1251) And Manuel...

by Wiggin and Dana LLP on

This week, while a potential ninth justice lectured the Senate Judiciary Committee on everything from fly fishing to "mutton busting" (but not on the age-old question of whether one horse-sized duck or 100 duck-sized horses...more

The Supreme Court - March, 2017 #2

by Dorsey & Whitney LLP on

The Supreme Court of the United States issued decisions in three cases today: SCA Hygiene Products Aktiebolag v. First Quality Baby Products, LLC, No. 15-927: Petitioner SCA Hygiene Products Aktiebolag (“SCA”) brought a...more

Federal Appeals Court Upholds Dismissal of Public Employee For Failing Random Drug Test

by Jackson Lewis P.C. on

The Unified Government of Wyandotte County/Kansas City, Kansas did not violate a public employee’s Fourth Amendment rights by requiring the employee to submit to a random drug test or by terminating his employment when he...more

Immigration Fact or Fiction for the U.S. Employer: CBP Searching Electronic Devices – A New Thing?

There has been heightened interest and concern regarding the potential for U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to search laptops and smart phones at the port of entry, due to the mention of such searches in one of...more

Crossing the Border with Electronics - Helpful Tips and Pitfalls to Avoid

by Dickinson Wright on

International travelers have been reporting that cell phones, computers, and other communication devices are being seized by Officers of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“USCBP”) branch of the U.S. Department of...more

Tech Rally – Industry Giants Back Google's Play to Protect Data

by Bracewell LLP on

On March 10, 2017, Google Inc. filed its objection to a Pennsylvania magistrate judge's order to comply with search warrants and turn over personal user data partially stored on foreign servers abroad. A number of technology...more

The Supreme Court - March, 2017

by Dorsey & Whitney LLP on

The Supreme Court of the United States issued decisions in three cases yesterday: Rippo v. Baker, No. 16-6316: Petitioner Michael Damon Rippo moved to disqualify the Nevada state judge who presided over his criminal...more

Odor of Marijuana Grounds for Vehicle Search

by Pessin Katz Law, P.A. on

In Robinson, et. al. v State, Nos. 37, 39, & 46, September Term, 2016, decided January 20, 2017 (Watts, J.), the Maryland Court of Appeals, Maryland’s highest court, (the “Court”) held that a law enforcement officer...more

House Legislation Purports To Require Warrants For All Email

by King & Spalding on

On February 6, 2017, the U.S. House of Representatives unanimously passed the Email Privacy Act (the “Act”), co-sponsored by Representatives Kevin Yoder (R-KS) and Jared Polis (D-CO), which would require law enforcement to...more

Privacy Tip #74 – What to Do About Customs and Border Patrol

There has been lots of talk about the ripple effects of the Trump travel ban. But here’s a new twist I hadn’t heard before—U.S. Customs and Border Control (CBP) agents are detaining U.S. citizens and requiring them to unlock...more

To Obtain Data Abroad, Government Just Googles It

by Bracewell LLP on

As technology companies expand globally they increasingly are storing customer electronic data in servers outside the United States. To keep apace, the Justice Department has become more creative in adapting existing legal...more

Illinois Appellate Court Limits Warrantless Searches of Liquor Licensees

by Holland & Knight LLP on

The Illinois Appellate Court has found unconstitutional a provision of the Illinois Liquor Control Act (Liquor Act) that authorizes unlimited inspection of liquor retailers' premises by local officials. The court ruled that...more

US Supreme Court Holds That Qualified Immunity Bars 4th Amendment Claim in Deadly Police Force Case

by Rumberger Kirk & Caldwell on

The United States Supreme Court recently held that an officer’s use of deadly force by shooting an armed individual before issuing a verbal warning did not violate a clearly established Fourth Amendment right, and therefore,...more

Second Circuit Court of Appeals Denies Rehearing in Microsoft Case

Back in December 2013, a U.S. magistrate issued a seemingly routine warrant in a narcotics case demanding that Microsoft turn over messages from a customer’s email account that resided on a server in Ireland. That warrant,...more

Is There an Opening to Withdraw or Modify Electronic Logging Device Rule?

by Holland & Knight LLP on

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) published its final electronic logging device (ELD) rule on Dec. 16, 2015, which the FMCSA claims, "is intended to help create a safer work environment for drivers, and...more

Supreme Court Update: White V. Pauly (16-67)

by Wiggin and Dana LLP on

Greetings, Court Fans! And Happy New Year! Yes, most of us kicked off 2017 over a week ago, but The Eight reassembled for the new (calendar) year yesterday, and rang it in with a summary reversal. We'll cover that...more

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