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Fourth Amendment

The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures and provides that warrants may only be granted upon findings of probable cause. The Fourth... more +
The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures and provides that warrants may only be granted upon findings of probable cause. The Fourth Amendment applies to the States via the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.  Important areas of Fourth Amendment jurisprudence flow from questions surrounding the definitions of "search" and "seizure," the applicability of the Amendment to so-called "stop and frisk" situations, the level of control that must be exerted by law enforcement before an individual is deemed "seized," and the "exclusionary rule," just to name a few.    less -

Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals Allows Wikimedia Upstream Suit to Proceed

by Alston & Bird on

On May 23, 2017, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals issued its opinion on Wikimedia foundation v. NSA/CSS. The Court vacated and remanded the NSA’s previously successful motion to dismiss Wikimedia’s Fourth and First...more

When Can a School Search a Student’s Bag?

by Reminger Co., LPA on

Last week the Ohio Supreme Court unanimously ruled that a school’s intrusive search of an unattended bag did not violate a student’s 4th Amendment right to be free from illegal search and seizures because the examination of...more

Here’s More On That Google-OFCCP Donnybrook*

*Donnybrook: Named for the Donnybrook Fair near Dublin, “a notoriously disorderly event, held annually from 1204 until the middle of the 19th century.” Meaning a “free-for-all; brawl; a usually public quarrel or...more

Warrant Needed for “Black Box” Data in Florida

by Wilson Elser on

In a case of first impression in Florida, a split appellate court in State of Florida v. Charles Wiley Worsham Jr., No. 4D15-2733 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. Mar. 29, 2017), held that a warrant was necessary before law enforcement...more

Blurring The Line Between Foreign and Domestic: The Expansion of Search Warrant Powers Overseas

A dispute in California federal court over whether Google must turn over documents stored overseas in response to a search warrant may have major implications for white collar practitioners and their clients. Last week Google...more

OFCCP Versus Google: The Battle Continues.

I posted in January about a lawsuit filed by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs against Google, seeking to force Google to provide detailed information about its equal employment practices and affirmative...more

Florida Court Extends Privacy Rights to Vehicle Black Box

In a case of first impression, the Florida Fourth District Court of Appeal held that police need a warrant to search a vehicle’s black box or event data recorder (EDR)....more

New York High Court Denies Facebook’s Challenge of Bulk Stored Communications Act Warrants

by Alston & Bird on

The Court of Appeals for the State of New York recently rejected Facebook’s appeal of its challenge to bulk search warrants issued pursuant to the Stored Communications Act (SCA) and separately challenged the warrants’...more

Unreliable Anonymous Tip Could Not Form Basis Of Reasonable Suspicion Drug Test By Public Employer

by Jackson Lewis P.C. on

A public employee established a Fourth Amendment violation by several individual supervisors of his former employer when they selected him for reasonable suspicion drug testing – and later discharged him — based on an...more

Permissible Disclosures Under the Stored Communications Act

by Revision Legal on

The Stored Communications Act, which is codified at 18 USC 121, sections 2701-2712, is federal law that governs the conduct of electronic communication service providers and the voluntary and compelled disclosure of the...more

Court Upholds Murder-for-Hire Conviction, Rejects Fourth Amendment Challenges

The murder-for-hire statute makes it a crime to agree to commit murder in exchange for “anything of pecuniary value.” 18 U.S.C. § 1958. The Second Circuit has understood this language to require that, at the time of the...more

Filling the Void in Internet Privacy: Time to Turn to the Courts (Again)

by Pierce Atwood LLP on

Now that the U.S. government has overturned the FCC’s privacy regulations, are courts more likely to step in to protect the Internet privacy rights of individuals?...more

The Circuit Raises A Glass To A Broad Construction Of Law Enforcement’s Authority Under The Fourth Amendment

Yesterday the Second Circuit issued a decision in United States v. Diaz, No. 15-3776 (Walker, Sack, Chin). In an opinion by Judge Sack, the Court addressed two questions under the Fourth Amendment: when does a police...more

Latest Legal Developments On Student Searches

by Tucker Arensberg, P.C. on

Highhouse v. Wayne Highlands School District, — F.Supp.3d — 2016 WL 4679012 (M.D. Pa. Sept. 7, 2016): claims relating to unlawful strip search of student accused of stealing money against individual employees and a school...more

The IRS and the Controlled Substance Act

by Garvey Schubert Barer on

Two recent District Court cases, High Desert Relief, Inc. v. United States of America and Alpenglow Botanicals, LLC et. al. v. United States of America have raised a novel issue in the IRS’s audits of cannabis businesses....more

The FTC and LabMD’s Legal Battle Gets Personal: First Amendment Claims Against FTC Lawyers Survive

The Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) sprawling and contentious legal battle with now-defunct medical testing company LabMD recently took an unusual turn when a federal court allowed LabMD (and its former CEO) to proceed with...more

Immigration Fact and Fiction for the U.S. Employer: More on CBP Searching Electronic Devices – What is Left of the Fourth...

As mentioned in a prior blog post, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) can conduct searches of individuals departing the United States, a fact that many are not aware of. In fact, the rule that failure to declare...more

On the Border: Lawmakers Seek to End Warrantless Searches of Electronic Devices by Border Authorities

by Snell & Wilmer on

The controversial practice of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agents randomly demanding that Americans turn over passwords to their mobile devices so they can be searched at the border and at ports of entry may be...more

U.S. Government’s Assault on Internet Privacy – Where Do We Go From Here?

by Pierce Atwood LLP on

The U.S. government’s action this week overturning the FCC’s recently passed privacy regulations and stripping the FCC’s authority to implement similar privacy regulations in the future, whether one agrees or disagrees with...more

Beware of Potential Punitive Damages Associated with Section 1983 Actions

by SmithAmundsen LLC on

Under Title 42 § 1983 of the U.S. Code, liability is imposed upon individuals and entities that act “under color of law.” Based on the Fourth Amendment, people have the right to be secure against unreasonable searches and...more

Privacy Tip #80 – Continued Controversy Over Mobile Device Searches by CBP

Many people were shocked and outraged over the story I relayed about a U.S. citizen, in fact, a NASA scientist, who, after returning from racing solar cars abroad was required by Custom and Border Patrol (CBP) agents to hand...more

ALJ Rules that OFCCP Exceeded its Authority in Demanding Certain Employee Compensation Data from Google

by FordHarrison on

In January, the OFCCP filed an administrative complaint against Google for denying access to records in violation of applicable federal affirmative action laws and implementing regulations. The Administrative Law Judge (ALJ)...more

The Supreme Court - March, 2017 #2

by Dorsey & Whitney LLP on

The Supreme Court of the United States issued decisions in three cases today: SCA Hygiene Products Aktiebolag v. First Quality Baby Products, LLC, No. 15-927: Petitioner SCA Hygiene Products Aktiebolag (“SCA”) brought a...more

Federal Appeals Court Upholds Dismissal of Public Employee For Failing Random Drug Test

by Jackson Lewis P.C. on

The Unified Government of Wyandotte County/Kansas City, Kansas did not violate a public employee’s Fourth Amendment rights by requiring the employee to submit to a random drug test or by terminating his employment when he...more

Immigration Fact or Fiction for the U.S. Employer: CBP Searching Electronic Devices – A New Thing?

There has been heightened interest and concern regarding the potential for U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to search laptops and smart phones at the port of entry, due to the mention of such searches in one of...more

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