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Equal Protection

The Equal Protection Clause is a section of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution that provides that "no state shall...deny to any citizen within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the... more +
The Equal Protection Clause is a section of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution that provides that "no state shall...deny to any citizen within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Essentially, the Equal Protection Clause provides that the government must treat an individual the same way that it treats other individuals in the same circumstances. The 14th Amendment Equal Protection Clause applies only to state governments, but the requirements of the clause apply to the federal government through the Due Process Clause of the 5th Amendment. less -
Law School Toolbox

Bar Exam Toolbox Podcast Episode 117: Listen and Learn -- Due Process and Equal Protection (Con Law)

Law School Toolbox on

Welcome back to the Bar Exam Toolbox podcast! In this week's episode, as part of our "Listen and Learn" series, we're talking about an important area of Constitutional Law -- the Fourteenth Amendment. Specifically, we take a...more

TNG Consulting

Eleventh Circuit Extends Bostock to Protect Transgender Students under Title IX

TNG Consulting on

Adams v. Sch. Bd. of St. Johns Cty., 968 F.3d 1286 (11th Cir. 2020). Factual Summary: Drew Adams is a transgender male who was prohibited from using the boys’ restroom at his public high school. In the eighth grade,...more

Tucker Arensberg, P.C.

Another Lockdown Lifted: Are These Government Bans Constitutional?

Restauranteurs across Pennsylvania breathed a collective sigh of relief this week as the three-week ban on indoor dining ordered by Governor Tom Wolf and Secretary of Health Rachel Levine came to an end. A struggling industry...more

Bricker & Eckler LLP

Ohio Department of Health to allow sex marker changes on birth certificates

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On December 16, 2020, in Ray et al. v. Breda et al., the United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio found that the Ohio Department of Health’s (ODH) policy to deny requests for sex marker changes on birth...more

Bricker & Eckler LLP

Transgender legal update

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On December 16, 2020, the United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio found that the Ohio Department of Health’s (ODH) policy to deny requests for sex marker changes on birth certificates by transgender...more

Fox Rothschild LLP

Fifth Circuit U.S. Court Of Appeals Round Two: Ronald S. Hines, Doctor Of Veterinary Medicine

Fox Rothschild LLP on

This case, based on an investigation by the Texas State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners (“TBVME”) into Dr. Hines’ digital provision of veterinary medicine, without the required initiation of a...more

Polsinelli

California Voters Reject Proposition to Reinstate Affirmative Action

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Among the 2020 ballot initiatives, California voters had the opportunity to weigh in on a 24-year ban on affirmative action in California.   In 1996, California voters approved the California Civil Rights Initiative...more

Proskauer - Government Contractor Compliance...

LGBT Advocacy Groups File Lawsuit Challenging President Trump’s Executive Order on Diversity Trainings

Quick Hit: On November 2, 2020, LGBT advocacy groups filed the second challenge to President Trump’s recent Executive Order on “Combatting Race and Sex Stereotyping” (the “Order”). Like the first lawsuit, this lawsuit...more

Akerman LLP - Marks, Works & Secrets

Slogans As Marks: When Does a Slogan Function as a Mark

Slogans can, but do not always, function as trademarks. To be sure, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) frequently allows slogans such as JUST DO IT! or QUALITY THROUGH CRAFTSMANSHIP, among many others, to...more

Fox Rothschild LLP

The TTAB Rejects Equal Protection Argument In Favor Of Failure-To-Function Refusal

Fox Rothschild LLP on

In a recent precedential decision, the United States Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (“TTAB”) affirmed an examining attorney’s failure-to-function refusal as respecting the standard character mark TEXAS LOVE, rejecting the...more

Proskauer - Government Contractor Compliance...

Civil Rights Groups File Challenge to President Trump’s Executive Order on Diversity Trainings

Quick Hit: On October 29, 2020, civil rights groups filed a lawsuit challenging President Trump’s recent Executive Order on “Combatting Race and Sex Stereotyping” (the “Order”). The Complaint alleges that the Order...more

DirectEmployers Association

Two Civil Rights Groups Sued The Trump Administration To Stop EO 13950

The National Urban League and the National Fair Housing Alliance, both which are covered federal Government contractors and federal grant recipients, filed suit in the federal District Court for the District of Columbia....more

Arent Fox

Civil Rights Organizations Challenge Executive Order 13950 in Court

Arent Fox on

The National Urban League and the National Fair Housing Alliance have sued the Trump Administration, seeking to enjoin Executive Order 13950 as unconstitutional. Yesterday, two civil rights organizations – the National...more

Seyfarth Shaw LLP

Third Circuit Refuses to Grant Immunity to Pennsylvania Judge on Probation Officer’s Harassment Claims

Seyfarth Shaw LLP on

Seyfarth Synopsis: Qualified immunity did not supply a Pennsylvania judge with a get out of jail free card, the Third Circuit concluded, holding that sexual harassment and retaliation in the workplace violate clearly...more

Rosenberg Martin Greenberg LLP

When Can I Redeem My Pennsylvania Property From Tax Sale? It Depends On Where The Property Is…

Renowned Pennsylvanian Benjamin Franklin famously wrote that “in this world, nothing can be said to be certain except death and taxes.”  A recent decision of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court demonstrates that, even in the...more

McAfee & Taft

Court applies Bostock’s “because of… sex” ruling to Title IX case

McAfee & Taft on

This past June, the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Bostock v. Clayton County expanded the protections of Title VII, which prohibits an employer from discriminating against an employee or applicant “because of … sex,” to...more

Fisher Phillips

Federal Appeals Court Rules In Favor Of Transgender Teen In Landmark Bathroom Case

Fisher Phillips on

In a major win for transgender rights, the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals recently ruled in favor a transgender teenager who wanted to use the boys’ bathroom at his former school, finding that the school district violated his...more

Epstein Becker & Green

#WorkforceWednesday: Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg Leaves Behind a Legacy - Employment Law This Week®

Epstein Becker & Green on

Welcome to #WorkforceWednesday. Like many of you, this week, we are honoring Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg and reflecting on her employment law legacy. Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg Passes Away Last Friday, U.S. Supreme Court...more

Littler

Pennsylvania Federal Judge Finds Governor Wolf’s Pandemic Restrictions Unconstitutional

Littler on

Pennsylvania’s gathering limitations, business shutdown and stay-at-home orders violate the United States Constitution, according to a federal judge in the Western District of Pennsylvania, who enjoined enforcement of those...more

Fisher Phillips

Pennsylvania Federal Judge Rules Governor’s Shutdown Orders Unconstitutional

Fisher Phillips on

A federal court judge in Pennsylvania just ruled that the governor’s COVID-19 orders shutting down businesses and restricting gatherings are unconstitutional and therefore unenforceable. By striking them down, the judge set...more

Spilman Thomas & Battle, PLLC

Governor Wolf’s COVID-19 Orders Fall Under Constitutional Challenge

Since March, Pennsylvania Governor Tom Wolf and his administration have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic by imposing some of the strictest limitations in the country on the Commonwealth’s residents and businesses. Now, a...more

Ballard Spahr LLP

Federal Judge Strikes Down Key COVID-19 Orders in PA

Ballard Spahr LLP on

On Monday, September 14, U.S. District Court Judge William S. Stickman IV became the first federal or state judge in Pennsylvania to strike down Governor Tom Wolf’s emergency orders relating to the COVID-19 pandemic....more

Jackson Walker

Texas Bar Owners Challenge Governor Abbott’s Executive Order GA-28

Jackson Walker on

Several bars across Texas have filed suit against Governor Greg Abbott challenging his executive orders related to the classification of bars and restaurants. On June 26, 2020, Governor Greg Abbott issued Executive Order...more

Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP

California Poised to Mandate Greater Diversity on Boards of Directors

On August 31, 2020, the California Legislature passed Assembly Bill 979 (Holden) (AB 979), which requires all publicly held domestic or foreign corporations whose principal executive offices are located in California to...more

Mintz - Health Care Viewpoints

Seventh Circuit Adds to Circuit Split Over Standard for DOJ Dismissals in FCA Cases

The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals recently decided a case that created a new standard to assess requests by the Department of Justice (DOJ) to dismiss declined qui tam (whistleblower) suits under the False Claims Act...more

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JD Supra Privacy Policy

Updated: May 25, 2018:

JD Supra is a legal publishing service that connects experts and their content with broader audiences of professionals, journalists and associations.

This Privacy Policy describes how JD Supra, LLC ("JD Supra" or "we," "us," or "our") collects, uses and shares personal data collected from visitors to our website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") who view only publicly-available content as well as subscribers to our services (such as our email digests or author tools)(our "Services"). By using our Website and registering for one of our Services, you are agreeing to the terms of this Privacy Policy.

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Collection of Information

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Your interactions with our Website and Services: As is true of most websites, we gather certain information automatically. This information includes IP addresses, browser type, Internet service provider (ISP), referring/exit pages, operating system, date/time stamp and clickstream data. We use this information to analyze trends, to administer the Website and our Services, to improve the content and performance of our Website and Services, and to track users' movements around the site. We may also link this automatically-collected data to personal information, for example, to inform authors about who has read their articles. Some of this data is collected through information sent by your web browser. We also use cookies and other tracking technologies to collect this information. To learn more about cookies and other tracking technologies that JD Supra may use on our Website and Services please see our "Cookies Guide" page.

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We use the information and data we collect principally in order to provide our Website and Services. More specifically, we may use your personal information to:

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How We Protect Your Information

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Children's Information

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Links to Other Websites

Our Website and Services may contain links to other websites. The operators of such other websites may collect information about you, including through cookies or other technologies. If you are using our Website or Services and click a link to another site, you will leave our Website and this Policy will not apply to your use of and activity on those other sites. We encourage you to read the legal notices posted on those sites, including their privacy policies. We are not responsible for the data collection and use practices of such other sites. This Policy applies solely to the information collected in connection with your use of our Website and Services and does not apply to any practices conducted offline or in connection with any other websites.

Information for EU and Swiss Residents

JD Supra's principal place of business is in the United States. By subscribing to our website, you expressly consent to your information being processed in the United States.

  • Our Legal Basis for Processing: Generally, we rely on our legitimate interests in order to process your personal information. For example, we rely on this legal ground if we use your personal information to manage your Registration Data and administer our relationship with you; to deliver our Website and Services; understand and improve our Website and Services; report reader analytics to our authors; to personalize your experience on our Website and Services; and where necessary to protect or defend our or another's rights or property, or to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, security, safety or privacy issues. Please see Article 6(1)(f) of the E.U. General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") In addition, there may be other situations where other grounds for processing may exist, such as where processing is a result of legal requirements (GDPR Article 6(1)(c)) or for reasons of public interest (GDPR Article 6(1)(e)). Please see the "Your Rights" section of this Privacy Policy immediately below for more information about how you may request that we limit or refrain from processing your personal information.
  • Your Rights
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    • Right to Restrict Our Processing or Erasure of Information: You also have the right in certain circumstances to ask us to restrict processing of your personal information or to erase your personal information. Where you have consented to our use of your personal information, you can withdraw your consent at any time.

You can make a request to exercise any of these rights by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

You can also manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard.

We will make all practical efforts to respect your wishes. There may be times, however, where we are not able to fulfill your request, for example, if applicable law prohibits our compliance. Please note that JD Supra does not use "automatic decision making" or "profiling" as those terms are defined in the GDPR.

  • Timeframe for retaining your personal information: We will retain your personal information in a form that identifies you only for as long as it serves the purpose(s) for which it was initially collected as stated in this Privacy Policy, or subsequently authorized. We may continue processing your personal information for longer periods, but only for the time and to the extent such processing reasonably serves the purposes of archiving in the public interest, journalism, literature and art, scientific or historical research and statistical analysis, and subject to the protection of this Privacy Policy. For example, if you are an author, your personal information may continue to be published in connection with your article indefinitely. When we have no ongoing legitimate business need to process your personal information, we will either delete or anonymize it, or, if this is not possible (for example, because your personal information has been stored in backup archives), then we will securely store your personal information and isolate it from any further processing until deletion is possible.
  • Onward Transfer to Third Parties: As noted in the "How We Share Your Data" Section above, JD Supra may share your information with third parties. When JD Supra discloses your personal information to third parties, we have ensured that such third parties have either certified under the EU-U.S. or Swiss Privacy Shield Framework and will process all personal data received from EU member states/Switzerland in reliance on the applicable Privacy Shield Framework or that they have been subjected to strict contractual provisions in their contract with us to guarantee an adequate level of data protection for your data.

California Privacy Rights

Pursuant to Section 1798.83 of the California Civil Code, our customers who are California residents have the right to request certain information regarding our disclosure of personal information to third parties for their direct marketing purposes.

You can make a request for this information by emailing us at privacy@jdsupra.com or by writing to us at:

Privacy Officer
JD Supra, LLC
10 Liberty Ship Way, Suite 300
Sausalito, California 94965

Some browsers have incorporated a Do Not Track (DNT) feature. These features, when turned on, send a signal that you prefer that the website you are visiting not collect and use data regarding your online searching and browsing activities. As there is not yet a common understanding on how to interpret the DNT signal, we currently do not respond to DNT signals on our site.

Access/Correct/Update/Delete Personal Information

For non-EU/Swiss residents, if you would like to know what personal information we have about you, you can send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com. We will be in contact with you (by mail or otherwise) to verify your identity and provide you the information you request. We will respond within 30 days to your request for access to your personal information. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information, in which case we will let you know if we are unable to do so and why. If you would like to correct or update your personal information, you can manage your profile and subscriptions through our Privacy Center under the "My Account" dashboard. If you would like to delete your account or remove your information from our Website and Services, send an e-mail to privacy@jdsupra.com.

Changes in Our Privacy Policy

We reserve the right to change this Privacy Policy at any time. Please refer to the date at the top of this page to determine when this Policy was last revised. Any changes to our Privacy Policy will become effective upon posting of the revised policy on the Website. By continuing to use our Website and Services following such changes, you will be deemed to have agreed to such changes.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, the practices of this site, your dealings with our Website or Services, or if you would like to change any of the information you have provided to us, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

JD Supra Cookie Guide

As with many websites, JD Supra's website (located at www.jdsupra.com) (our "Website") and our services (such as our email article digests)(our "Services") use a standard technology called a "cookie" and other similar technologies (such as, pixels and web beacons), which are small data files that are transferred to your computer when you use our Website and Services. These technologies automatically identify your browser whenever you interact with our Website and Services.

How We Use Cookies and Other Tracking Technologies

We use cookies and other tracking technologies to:

  1. Improve the user experience on our Website and Services;
  2. Store the authorization token that users receive when they login to the private areas of our Website. This token is specific to a user's login session and requires a valid username and password to obtain. It is required to access the user's profile information, subscriptions, and analytics;
  3. Track anonymous site usage; and
  4. Permit connectivity with social media networks to permit content sharing.

There are different types of cookies and other technologies used our Website, notably:

  • "Session cookies" - These cookies only last as long as your online session, and disappear from your computer or device when you close your browser (like Internet Explorer, Google Chrome or Safari).
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  • "Web Beacons/Pixels" - Some of our web pages and emails may also contain small electronic images known as web beacons, clear GIFs or single-pixel GIFs. These images are placed on a web page or email and typically work in conjunction with cookies to collect data. We use these images to identify our users and user behavior, such as counting the number of users who have visited a web page or acted upon one of our email digests.

JD Supra Cookies. We place our own cookies on your computer to track certain information about you while you are using our Website and Services. For example, we place a session cookie on your computer each time you visit our Website. We use these cookies to allow you to log-in to your subscriber account. In addition, through these cookies we are able to collect information about how you use the Website, including what browser you may be using, your IP address, and the URL address you came from upon visiting our Website and the URL you next visit (even if those URLs are not on our Website). We also utilize email web beacons to monitor whether our emails are being delivered and read. We also use these tools to help deliver reader analytics to our authors to give them insight into their readership and help them to improve their content, so that it is most useful for our users.

Analytics/Performance Cookies. JD Supra also uses the following analytic tools to help us analyze the performance of our Website and Services as well as how visitors use our Website and Services:

  • HubSpot - For more information about HubSpot cookies, please visit legal.hubspot.com/privacy-policy.
  • New Relic - For more information on New Relic cookies, please visit www.newrelic.com/privacy.
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Facebook, Twitter and other Social Network Cookies. Our content pages allow you to share content appearing on our Website and Services to your social media accounts through the "Like," "Tweet," or similar buttons displayed on such pages. To accomplish this Service, we embed code that such third party social networks provide and that we do not control. These buttons know that you are logged in to your social network account and therefore such social networks could also know that you are viewing the JD Supra Website.

Controlling and Deleting Cookies

If you would like to change how a browser uses cookies, including blocking or deleting cookies from the JD Supra Website and Services you can do so by changing the settings in your web browser. To control cookies, most browsers allow you to either accept or reject all cookies, only accept certain types of cookies, or prompt you every time a site wishes to save a cookie. It's also easy to delete cookies that are already saved on your device by a browser.

The processes for controlling and deleting cookies vary depending on which browser you use. To find out how to do so with a particular browser, you can use your browser's "Help" function or alternatively, you can visit http://www.aboutcookies.org which explains, step-by-step, how to control and delete cookies in most browsers.

Updates to This Policy

We may update this cookie policy and our Privacy Policy from time-to-time, particularly as technology changes. You can always check this page for the latest version. We may also notify you of changes to our privacy policy by email.

Contacting JD Supra

If you have any questions about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies, please contact us at: privacy@jdsupra.com.

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This website uses cookies to improve user experience, track anonymous site usage, store authorization tokens and permit sharing on social media networks. By continuing to browse this website you accept the use of cookies. Click here to read more about how we use cookies.