Fourth Amendment

The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures and provides that warrants may only be granted upon findings of probable cause. The Fourth... more +
The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures and provides that warrants may only be granted upon findings of probable cause. The Fourth Amendment applies to the States via the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.  Important areas of Fourth Amendment jurisprudence flow from questions surrounding the definitions of "search" and "seizure," the applicability of the Amendment to so-called "stop and frisk" situations, the level of control that must be exerted by law enforcement before an individual is deemed "seized," and the "exclusionary rule," just to name a few.    less -
News & Analysis as of

The Supreme Court - December, 2016

The Supreme Court of the United States granted certiorari in seven cases on Friday afternoon: Impression Products, Inc. v. Lexmark International, Inc., No. 15-1189: 1) Whether a "conditional sale" that transfers title to...more

Supreme Court Update: Bravo-Fernandez V. United States (15-537) And Order List

12.2.2016 Greetings Court Fans! The Court issued its first signed opinion of the term this week, a unanimous decision in Bravo-Fernandez v. United States (15-537) holding that the Double Jeopardy Clause does not bar the...more

Law Enforcement Permitted To Obtain GPS Location Data Without A Warrant In A Sex Trafficking Investigation

In United States v. Gilliam, 15-387, the Second Circuit (Newman, Winter, Cabranes) held that, under the exigent circumstances present in that case, law enforcement could use cell phone GPS data to locate a suspect without...more

Ninth Circuit Considers Limits to DEA Access to Oregon PDMP

On November 7, 2016, the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit heard arguments in Oregon Prescription Drug Monitoring Program v. United States DEA, No. 14-35402 (9th Cir. 2016). Here, the Drug Enforcement Administration...more

Court Finds Airport Cannot Fly Under the Radar on Employee’s Email Privacy Claims

A federal district court in Virginia recently grounded an airport’s attempt to escape liability for accessing an employee’s email account. (Hoofnagle v. Smyth-Wythe Airport Commission.) The decision, which delivered a mixed...more

Be Reasonable: Qualified Immunity, After-Discovered Facts, and the Case of Hernandez v. Mesa

In some form or fashion, law students learn that the words “reasonable man” denote a person exercising those qualities of attention, knowledge, intelligence and judgment which society requires of its members for the...more

Supreme Court Update: Bosse V. Oklahoma (15-9173) And Order List

Greetings, Court Fans! Fresh from a three-day weekend, the Court made short work yesterday of its first decision of the term, a per curiam summary reversal in Bosse v. Oklahoma (15-9173). Though the case touched upon an...more

Unclaimed Property Disputes Over State Priority Take Center Stage, Head to U.S. Supreme Court and the Third Circuit

Disputes over the unclaimed property priority rules continue to intensify. The U.S. Supreme Court accepted review of a clash involving more than 20 states regarding the right to take custody of official checks. ...more

Delaware District Court Sets Up Another Marathon Unclaimed Property Battle

On September 23, 2016, the Delaware federal district court granted the state’s motion to dismiss in Marathon Petroleum Corp., et al. v. Cook, et al., ending (for now) the plaintiffs’ claims that Delaware’s audit of the...more

New Delaware Unclaimed Property Decision Further Complicates Landscape

Another federal judge slams Delaware’s unclaimed property audit methodology but rejects the holder’s reliance on the priority rules as a defense to the audit demands. See Marathon Petroleum Corp. et al. v. Cook et al., No....more

CAS Legal Mailbag Question of the Week – September, 2016 #2

Dear Legal Mailbag: Recently, a parent called to complain about a teacher’s being “spaced-out” when she talked to him about her child. This parent is quick to draw judgments about people and even quicker to share them. I...more

Georgia Magistrate Judge Limits OSHA Safety Inspections in Poultry Plants

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration is fighting a Gainesville, Georgia, magistrate judge’s recommendation that would restrict its new regional worker-safety program aimed at poultry processing facilities....more

Plains All American Case Dismissed – Federal Court Determines Holder Must Develop Factual Record Before Challenging Kelmar...

On August 16, 2016, the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware granted Kelmar’s and Delaware’s motions to dismiss in Plains All American Pipeline, L.P., v. Cook, et al. The court determined that the Plaintiff (1)...more

D.H. v. Clayton County School District - A Federal Appeals Court Reaffirms New Jersey v. TLO

In the light of Riley v. California and United States v. Wurie, which imposed a warrant requirement for the search of cellular phones incident to lawful arrest, some legal commentators believed the courts were poised to...more

Court Of Chancery Explains Contract Interpretation Rules

This is an excellent primer on the rules that guide the proper interpretation of a contract. While the rules it applies are taught to first year law students, they are too often forgotten by those of us long out of school....more

You’ve Got (Foreign) Mail: Can Law Enforcement Get to it?

Even though Microsoft is a U.S. corporation subject to domestic subpoenas and warrants, prosecutors are not entitled to emails stored on its servers abroad, the Second Circuit ruled last week in Microsoft Corp. v. United...more

Second Circuit: Stored Communications Act Warrants Cannot Reach Overseas Data

On July 14, 2016, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals determined that a warrant issued under the Stored Communications Act (SCA) is subject to the same territorial restrictions as a traditional warrant: the government’s reach...more

Do you have privacy rights on social media?

True or False: Your privacy rights are diminished in social media. Most people would probably say this is true, and there are certainly court decisions asserting that people give up privacy interests once they post otherwise...more

Senate Rejects Amendment That Would Expand The FBI’s Data Collection Powers

On Wednesday, June 22, the U.S. Senate voted down a proposal that would have expanded the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (“FBI”) ability to obtain internet records from technology companies. The measure, a proposed...more

Supreme Court Update: Mathis V. United States (15-6092), Utah V. Strieff (14-1373), Birchfield V. North Dakota (14-1468) And...

The Court finished up OT15 this morning with decisions in Voisine v. United States (14-10154), holding that a reckless domestic assault qualifies as a "misdemeanor crime of domestic violence" under the federal...more

The Supreme Court - June 2016 #6

The Supreme Court of the United States issued decisions in five cases on June 23, 2016: Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin, No. 14-981: Petitioner Abigail Fisher applied for admission to the University of Texas at...more

Utah v. Strieff

EVIDENCE OBTAINED FROM AN UNLAWFUL DETENTION IS ADMISSIBLE IF A VALID ARREST WARRANT IS SUBSEQUENTLY DISCOVERED - Narcotics detective Douglas Fackrell conducted surveillance on a South Salt Lake City residence based on...more

En Banc Fourth Circuit Rules No Fourth Amendment Protection For Cell-Site Location Information

On May 31, 2016, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit held in United States v. Graham, Nos. 12-4659 and 12-4825, in an en banc rehearing, that the government’s acquisition of historical cell-site location...more

Fourth Circuit Says Law Enforcement Doesn’t Need a Warrant to Figure out Where You Are

Like many people, Aaron Graham and Eric Jordan carried cell phones around in 2011. Unlike most people, Graham and Jordan were convicted of crimes arising from their participation in a series of armed robberies in that period,...more

The Week in UAS News

This week’s news includes the continued rise of drone usage pretty much everywhere; a “drone freeze ray”; privacy issues around the shooting down of a drone; and other recent developments in UAV regulations and usage around...more

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