Totality of Circumstances Test

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BB&K Police Bulletin: Use of Deadly Force: Officers’ Pre-Shooting Conduct Included in the Totality of Circumstances Test...

Overview: Deputies shot and killed Shane Hayes inside his home. His daughter filed suit against the deputies and the county for excessive force, Fourth Amendment violations, negligent wrongful death and claims against the...more

Undue Hardship? Part II: The Eighth Circuit’s Totality-Of-Circumstances Test

In July, this blog explored the Second and Ninth Circuit’s application of the “undue hardship” test under 11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(8), which states that student loan debt is presumptively non-dischargeable. To refresh, in those...more

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